KIN 2509 Ch 6

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dfusel2
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KIN 2509 Ch 6
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2012-02-22 21:16:24
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urology
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Ch 6 Urology
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  1. urology
    the branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of the male urinary & reproductive systems and the female urinary system
  2. urologists
    physicians that specialize in urology
  3. electrolyte
    • a substance that, when dissolved in water, can conduct an electric current
    • presence in the human body is essential to survival
    • major function of the urinary system - maintain proper balance of electrolytes
    • Ex: sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium
  4. enzyme
    a substance, usually a protein, that affects the rate of chemical changes
  5. erectile tissue
    vascular tissue that becomes erect or rigid when filled with blood, such as the clitoris, penis, or nipples
  6. filtrate
    the fluid that has been passed through a filter
  7. gamete
    • a mature male or female reproductive cell
    • the spermatozoon or ovum
  8. gonads
    • primary reproductive organs
    • testes of the male
    • ovaries of the female
  9. homeostasis
    • a relative constancy or equilibrium in the internal environment of the body
    • naturally maintained by adaptive response that promote a healthy survival
  10. ions
    electrically charged particles
  11. permeate
    • to pass through the substance or mass of
    • to penetrate and spread through, as water will permeate through blotting paper
  12. testosterone
    a naturally occuring androgenic hormone formed in greatest quantities by the testes
  13. testis
    male gonads or testicles
  14. vascular
    composed of or pertaining to a blood vessel
  15. vasoconstriction
    • narrowing of the blood vessels
    • decrease in the caliber of blood vessels
  16. void
    to empty or evacuate, such as urine from the bladder
  17. genitourinary system
    genitals + urinary organs
  18. primary function of the urinary system
    to regulate the volume and composition of fluids in the body & remove waste products from the blood
  19. pathway of urine through the urinary system
    • kidneys
    • ureters
    • bladder
    • urethra
    • urine leaves the body
  20. urine formation
    • glomerular filtration
    • tubular reabsorption
    • tubular secretion
  21. glomerul/o
    glomerulus
  22. nephr/o
    kidney
  23. ren/o
    kidney
  24. pyel/o
    renal pelvis
  25. cyst/o
    bladder
  26. vesic/o
    bladder
  27. glomerulosclerosis
    a severe kidney disease in which glomerular function of blood filtration is lost as fibrous scar tissue replaces the glomeruli
  28. nephroma
    tumor of the kidney
  29. renal
    pertaining to the kidney
  30. pyelolithotomy
    incision to remove renal calculi from the pelvis of the kidney
  31. cystoscope
    an instrument for examining and treating lesions of the urinary bladder, ureter, and kidney
  32. vesicovaginal
    pertaining to the urinary bladder and vagina
  33. meat/o
    opening, meatus
  34. trigon/o
    trigone (triangular region at base of the bladder)
  35. ureter/o
    ureter
  36. urethr/o
    urethra
  37. ur/o
    urinary tract, urine
  38. meatotomy
    incision to enlarge a meatus
  39. trigonitis
    inflammation of the trigone
  40. ureterocele
    cystlike dilation or swelling of the ureter near its opening into the bladder
  41. urethrodynia
    pain in the urethra
  42. urography
    process of recording x-ray images of the urinary tract (kidneys, ureter, or bladder) after introduction of a contrast medium
  43. albumin/o
    albumin (protein)
  44. azot/o
    nitrogenous
  45. kal/i
    potassium (an electrolyte)
  46. ket/o
    ketone bodies (acids and acetones)
  47. keton/o
    ketone bodies (acids and acetones)
  48. albuminoid
    resembling albumin
  49. azoturia
    an increase in nitrogenous compounds in the urine, especially urea in the urine
  50. hypokalemia
    an abnormally low concentration of potassium in the blood
  51. ketosis
    • abnormal accumulation of ketone bodies
    • also known as ketoacidosis because of the accumulation of acids in the tissues and blood
  52. ketonuria
    ketone bodies in the urine
  53. ur/o
    urine, urinary tract
  54. urin/o
    urine, urinary tract
  55. uremia
    excessive amounts of urea and other nitrogenous waste products in the blood
  56. urinometer
    a device for determining the specific gravity of urine
  57. an-
    without, not
  58. dia-
    through, across
  59. dys-
    bad, painful, difficult
  60. hyper-
    excessive, above normal
  61. hypo-
    under, below
  62. poly-
    many, much
  63. supra-
    above, excessive
  64. anuria
    absence of urine formation
  65. dialysis
    the process of removing toxic materials from the blood when the kidneys are unable to do so
  66. dysuria
    difficult or painful urination, symptomatic of numerous conditions
  67. hyperkalemia
    excessive amount of potassium in the blood
  68. hyperazoturia
    excretion of abnormally small quantities of nitrogenous compounds in the urine
  69. polyuria
    excessive secretion and discharge of urine
  70. suprarenal
    located above the kidneys
  71. andr/o
    male
  72. androgen
    • producing a male
    • a substance producing or stimulating the development of male characteristics (masculinization) such as the hormones testosterone and androsterone
  73. balan/o
    glans penis
  74. gonad/o
    gonads, sex glands
  75. orch/o
    testes
  76. orchi/o
    testes
  77. orchid/o
    testes
  78. test/o
    testes
  79. prostat/o
    prostate gland
  80. spermat/o
    sperm
  81. sperm/o
    sperm
  82. vas/o
    vessel, vas deferens, duct
  83. balanoplasty
    plastic surgery of the glans penis to correct a congenital defect or to serve an aesthetic purpose
  84. gonadopathy
    any disease of the sexual glands
  85. orchitis
    inflammation of one or both of the testes
  86. orchiopexy
    surgical fixation of an undescended testicle by implanting it into the scrotum
  87. orchidectomy
    excision of one or more testicles
  88. testis
    one of the pair of male gonads that produce sperm and testosterone
  89. prostatomegaly
    enlargement of the prostate
  90. spermatolysis
    destruction of sperm
  91. oligospermia
    temporary or permanent deficiency in the number of spermatozoa in the semen
  92. vasectomy
    a procedure for male sterilization involving the bilateral surgical removal of a part of the vas deferens
  93. a-
    without, not
  94. an-
    without, not
  95. circum-
    around
  96. para-
    near, beside, beyond
  97. aspermia
    failure to form semen or ejaculate
  98. anorchism
    congenital absence of one or both testicles
  99. circumcision
    removal of the end of the prepuce of the penis
  100. paraphimosis
    an abnormal condition characterized by an inability to replace the foreskin in its normal position after it has been retracted behind the glans penis
  101. phim/o
    • muzzle
    • restrains & has a tightening effect
  102. adenocarcinoma of the kidney
    • a malignant neoplasm of the kidney
    • AKA renal cell carcinoma
  103. anuria
    complete suppression of urinary secretion by the kidneys
  104. azotemia
    retention of excessive amounts of nitrogenous compounds in the blood
  105. bladder neck obstruction
    blockage of the bladder outlet
  106. diuresis
    abnormal secretion of large amounts of urine
  107. dysuria
    • painful or difficult urination
    • common symptom of cystitis and other urinary tract conditions
  108. end-stage renal disease
    • the final phase of a kidney disease process
    • disease had advanced to the point that the kidneys no longer can adequately filter the blood
  109. enuresis
    • involuntary discharge of urine after the age by which bladder control should have been established (~5 yrs)
    • AKA bedwetting at night or nocturnal enuresis
  110. glomerulonephritis
    renal disease characterized by bilateral inflammatory changes in the glomeruli that are not the result of infection of the kidneys
  111. hematuria
    blood in the urine
  112. hydronephrosis
    distention of the renal pelvis and calyces of a kidney caused by a urinary tract obstruction
  113. interstitial nephritis
    nephritis associated with pathological changes in the renal interstitial tissue that may be primary or due to a toxic agent such as a drug or chemical
  114. nephrolithiasis / nephrosis / nephrotic syndrome
    a condition characterized by the presence of kidney stones, also called renal calculi, in which there are degenerative changes in the kidneys
  115. nocturia
    excessive urination at night
  116. oliguria
    diminished or scanty urination in relation to fluid intake
  117. polycystic kidney
    a hereditary condition in which the kidneys are enlarged and contain many cysts
  118. polydipsia
    • excessive thirst
    • a sign of diabetes mellitus or diabetes insipidus
  119. pyelonephritis
    a bacterial infection of the renal pelvis and renal medulla of one or both kidneys
  120. pyuria
    the presence of white blood cells in the urine
  121. renal hypertension
    high blood pressure resulting from a kidney disease
  122. urgency
    a sudden compelling urge to urinate
  123. urinary incontinence
    intermittent or complete absence of ability to control the release of urine from the bladder
  124. Wilms tumor
    rapidly developing, malignant kidney tumor that usually occurs in children
  125. achorism
    congenital absence of one or both testes
  126. balantitis
    inflammation of the skin covering the glans penis
  127. benign prostatic hyperplasia
    a nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate due to excessive growth or prostatic tissue
  128. cryptorchidism
    failure of testicles to descend into the scrotum
  129. epididymitis
    acute or chronic inflammation of the epididymis
  130. epispadias
    a congenital (birth) defect in which the urethra opens up on the upper side of the penis, near the glans penis, instead of at the tip
  131. hydrocele
    an accumulation of fluid in any saclike cavity or duct, particularly the scrotal sac or along the spermatic cord
  132. hypospadias
    a congenital defect in which the male urethra opens up on the undersurface of the penis instead of at the tip
  133. impotence
    the inability of a man to achieve or maintain an erection
  134. phimosis
    stenosis of preputial orifice in which the foreskin cannot be pushed back over the glans penis
  135. prostatic cancer
    a malignant neoplasm of the prostate tissue, creating pressure on the upper part of the urethra
  136. prostatism
    any condition of the prostate gland that interferes with the flow of urine from the bladder
  137. sexually transmitted disease
    a contagious disease aquired by sexual intercourse or genital contact
  138. chlamydial infection
    an infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis
  139. genital wart
    a wart of the genitalia caused by human papillomavirus (HPV)
  140. gonorrhea
    an infection caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  141. herpes genitalis
    an infection of the genital and anorectal skin and mucosa caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV)
  142. syphilis
    an infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum and characterized by lesions that may involve any organ or tissue
  143. trichomoniasis
    an infection of the vagina, urethra, or prostate caused by the bacterium Trichomonas vaginalis
  144. varicocele
    swollen, enlarged, herniated veins near the testis
  145. intravenous pyelogram
    procedure in which a contrast medium is injected intravenously and serial x-ray films are taken to provide visualization and important information of the entire urinary tract: kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra
  146. KUB
    • kidneys, ureters, bladder
    • a radiograph obtained without the use of a contrast medium that illustrates the size, shape, and location of the kidneys in relationship to other organs in the abdominopelvic region
  147. radiography
    examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes, using x-rays, with the record of the findings usually impressed upon a photographic film
  148. renal scan
    an imaging procedure that determines renal function and shape
  149. retrograde pyelogram
    procedure in which a contrast medium is introduced through a cystoscope directly into the bladder and ureters, using small-caliber catheters
  150. ultrasonography / ultrasonogram
    a method of producing an image or photograph of an organ or tissue using sound waves
  151. voiding cystourethrography
    radiography of the bladder and urethra after the introduction of a contrast medium and during the process of voiding urine
  152. catheterization
    insertion of a catheter (a hollow flexible tube) into a body cavity or organ to instill a substance or remove a fluid
  153. cystoscopy
    visual examination of the urinary bladder by inserting a cystoscope into the urethra
  154. digital rectal examination
    insertion of a finger into the male rectum to palpate (use fingers to examine) the rectum and prostate
  155. percutaneous renal biopsy
    obtaining renal tissue for analysis by use of a needle inserted through the skin
  156. blood urea nitrogen test
    a test that measures the amount of urea (nitrogenous waste product) normally excreted by the kidneys into the blood
  157. creatine clearance test
    test that measures the level of creatine (a waster product) in the blood
  158. prostate-specific antigen test
    blood test to screen for prostate cancer
  159. urinalysis
    • a physical, chemical, and microscopic analysis of the urine
    • the voided urine specimen is tests for color, odor, pH, specific gravity, protein, glucose, ketone bodies, bilirubin, casts, and pus
  160. circumcision
    surgical removal of the foreskin or the prepuce of the penis
  161. cystolitholapaxy
    removal of a kidney stone from the bladder by crushing it and then extracting the particles via irrigation
  162. kidney / renal transplantation
    surgical implantation of a kidney from a compatible donor into a recipient
  163. lithotripsy
    a procedure for eliminating a calculus in the renal pelvis, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder
  164. extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy
    • a noninvasive procedure to break up kidney stones
    • the shock waves are focused on the stones, disintegrating them and permitting their passage in the urine
  165. stent placement
    use of a device to hold open vessels, tubes, or an obstructed ureter
  166. vasectomy
    removal of all or a segment of the vas deferens, also called ductus deferens
  167. dialysis
    process of diffusing blood across a semipermeable membrane to remove toxic materials and to maintain fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balances in cases of impaired kidney function or absence of the kidneys
  168. hemodialysis
    a medion of providing the function of the kidneys by circulating tubes made of semipermeable membranes
  169. peritoneal dialysis
    dialysis in which the lining of the peritoneal cavity is used as the dialyzing membrane
  170. analgesics
    drugs that relieve pain without affecting consciousness
  171. antibiotics
    drugs that combat bacterial infection and have the ability to inhibit or kill foreign organisms within the body
  172. systemic antibiotics
    oral antibiotics used to treat UTIs because these drugs exert a systemic effect
  173. urinary tract antibiotics
    special urinary tract antibiotics used to treat UTIs
  174. antispasmodics
    drugs that relieve spasms and act to relax the smooth muscle in the wall of the urethra, bladder, and intestine, allowing normal urination
  175. diuretics
    substances that increase the rate of secretion
  176. potassium supplements
    supplements used concurrently with many diuretics to counteract the potassium-depletion effect
  177. sulfonamides
    substances used to treat UTIs
  178. urinary alkalizers
    substances that inhibit stone formation by reducing urine acidity
  179. uricosurics
    substances used to treat gout because they increase urinary excretion of uric acid
  180. estrogen hormones
    substances that suppress gonadotropic and testicular androgenic hormones in men
  181. gonadotropins (drugs)
    hormonal preparations used to raise sperm count in infertility cases
  182. spermicidals
    substances used to destroy sperm and are often used within the woman's vagina for contraception
  183. AGN
    acute glomerular nephritis
  184. ARF
    acute renal failure
  185. BNO
    bladder neck obstruction
  186. BPH
    • benign prostatic hyperplasia
    • benign prostatic hypertrophy
  187. BUN
    blood urea nitrogen
  188. CAPD
    continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
  189. cath
    catheterization, catheter
  190. CRF
    chronic renal failure
  191. cysto
    cystoscopy
  192. DRE
    digital rectal examination
  193. ED
    • erectile dysfunction
    • emergency department
  194. ESRD
    end-stage renal disease
  195. ESWL
    extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy
  196. EU
    excretory urogram (same as IVP)
  197. GU
    genitourinary
  198. GFR
    glomerular filtration rate
  199. HD
    hemodialysis
  200. IVP
    intravenous pyelogram (same as EU)
  201. IVU
    intravenous urography
  202. K
    potassium (an electrolyte)
  203. KUB
    kidneys, ureters, bladder
  204. Na
    sodium (an electrolyte)
  205. PKU
    phenylketonuria
  206. pH
    symbol for degree of acidity or alkalinity
  207. prn
    as needed, as required
  208. PSA
    prostate-specific antigen
  209. RP
    retrograde pyelogram
  210. sp.gr.
    specific gravity
  211. STD
    sexually transmitted disease
  212. TURP
    transurethral resection of prostate (for prostatectomy)
  213. UA
    urinalysis
  214. US
    ultrasound
  215. UTI
    urinary tract infection
  216. VCUG
    voiding cystourethrogram/cystourography
  217. VDRL
    Venereal Disease Research Laboratories

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