Biology 1201 lab practical 1

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zzto
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136518
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Biology 1201 lab practical 1
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2012-02-20 23:43:07
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Biology 1201 ECU lab practical
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General things to study for the first practical in Biology
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  1. How to remember taxnomy
    • Keep = Kingdom
    • Pond = Phylum
    • Clean = Class
    • Or = Order
    • Froggy = Family
    • Gets = Genus
    • Sick = species
  2. Domain Archaea
    cell walls-
    structure-
    environments
    methanogens
    • •cell cwalls lack peptidoglycan
    • •plasma membranes have a unique lipid structure
    • •live in extreme environments: Thermophiles (heat-loving) Halophiles
    • (salt-loving)
    • Methanogens- oxidize hydrogen gas with carbon dioxide and produce methane as waste product
    • (swamp gas)
  3. Domain Bacteria
    •Classification by Gram stain uses variation in cell wall composition
    •Gram+ve (purple or blue)
    outer peptidoglycan-rich wall traps violet dye
  4. Domain Bacteria•Classification by Gram stain uses variation in cell wall composition
    • •Gram–ve (red)
    • thinner layer of peptidoglycan under second plasma membrane (capsule) does not retain violet dye
  5. Spherical:
    (sing.–us)
    (paired)
    (chains)
    (bunch of grapes)
    • –cocci (sing.–us)–
    • diplococci(paired)–
    • streptococci(chains)–
    • staphylococci(bunch of grapes)
  6. Rod-shaped
    - bacilli (sing. –us)
  7. Helical or spiral
    (and corkscrew)
    • spirilli (sing. –us)
    • - spirochaete (corkscrew)
  8. Aerobe
    must have oxygen
  9. Facultative anaerobe
    • - uses oxygen if present
    • -fermentation when
    • oxygen is absent
  10. •Obligate anaerobe
    • -lives in absence of oxygen
    • -e.g. Rhizobium, a nitrogen-fixing bacterium
  11. relationships between organisms
    Symbioses:
  12. symbioses (Symbiont) (Host) relations
    • •Mutualism + +
    • •Parasitism + -
    • •Commensalism + 0
  13. Vectors
    • are uneffected by a
    • disease agent they carry to a host. (Commensalism)
  14. Cyanobacteria traits
    • •most are photoautotrophs
    • •unicellular, multicellular, colonial
    • nitrogen fixation
  15. •plant symbionts convert
    • N2 -> NH4+
    • nitrogen ammonium ions
    • (e.g.
    • Rhizobium in legumes)
  16. •heterocysts –
    specialized nitrogen-fixing bacterial cells
  17. Cyanbacteria examples
  18. Ecological roles of bacteria
    • •Food chain
    • •Digestion
    • •Pathogens
    • •Decomposers
    • •Oxygen production
    • •Nitrogen Fixation
  19. Get pictures of samples from lab
  20. Characteristics of Eukaryotes
    • •Membrane-bound nucleus–DNA contained in linear chromosomes
    • •Membrane-bound organelles
    • •9+2 structure of flagella:
    • •10-100 times larger than prokaryotes
  21. Plant vs Animal Eukaryotes
    Plants have rectangluar fixed shape, chloroplast, cell wall and membrane (animal only has membrane)
  22. Protozoa:
    • •heterotrophic
    • –(animal-like)
  23. •Algae:
    • autotrophic
    • –(plant-like)
  24. •Absorptive:
    –(fungus-like)
  25. Types of Protists
    • •Protozoa: heterotrophic –(animal-like)
    • •Algae: autotrophic –(plant-like)
    • •Absorptive: –(fungus-like)
  26. Movement in Protists (most are aquatic or symbiotic with body tissues/fluids)
    • •Flagella:–whip-like tail
    • •Cilia:–tiny hair-like structures
    • •Pseudopodia: –“false foot”
  27. Feeding Mechanisms in Protists
    • •Phagocytosis: rhizopods (e.g. Amoeba), some ciliates (e.g. Didinium)
    • •Filter feeding: some ciliates (e.g. Paramecium, Stentor)
    • •Trapping: actinopods, formaniferans
  28. •Phagocytosis:
    • pseudopodia extend around prey, create
    • food vacuole; vacuole fuses with lysosome (digestive enzymes); waste released from food vacuole by exocytosis
  29. •Filter feeding:
    • cilia sweep food particles into oral
    • groove, food engulfed by phagocytosis
  30. •Trapping:
    • Prey sticks to slender appendages, is
    • engulfed by phagocytosis, and is drawn into the cell by cytoplasmic streaming
  31. Filter feeding
  32. Get lab 2 samples
  33. Protists:
    • Animal-like: Heterotrophs with no cell wall
    • Fungi-like: Chemotrophs, some with chitin in cell walls
    • Plant-like: Photoautotrophs, some with cellulose in
    • cell walls
  34. Sexual Reproduction
    • fusion of haploid gametes to form a diploid zygote
    • gametes are usually from 2 different individuals (parents)
    • unique gene combinations arise through sexual reproduction…
    • different from conjugation in which genetic material is exchanged
  35. The
    Movement from Water to Land
    Problem #1:
    • Need
    • sufficient water
  36. Solutions to problem 1
    • •Rhizoids: roots that typically extend below ground
    • (also source of dissolved minerals)
    • •Apical Meristem: at root and shoot tips. Allows greater growth in both directions
    • •Vascular System: Transports water/nutrients throughout
    • plant.
    • –Phloem:conducts sugars/organic compounds from leaves to rest of plant
    • –Xylem:conducts water/minerals from roots to rest of plant, provides support
    • (skeleton)
  37. •Vascular System: Transports water/nutrients throughout
    plant.
    made of
    • –Phloem:
    • conducts sugars/organic compounds from leaves to rest of plant
    • –Xylem:
    • conducts water/minerals from roots to rest of plant, provides support
    • (skeleton)
  38. •Apical Meristem:
    at root and shoot tips. Allows greater growth in both directions
  39. Rhizoids:
    • roots that typically extend below ground
    • (also source of dissolved minerals)
  40. The
    Movement from Water to Land
    Problem #2:
    • Need to prevent
    • excessive water loss
  41. Problem
    #2: Need to prevent excessive water loss solutions
    cuticle and stomata
  42. cuticle,Stomata
    • •Waxy cuticle
    • prevents evaporation (thickness depends on habitat)
    • •Stomata: opening in leaf that regulates water
    • loss
  43. The Movement from Water to Land
    Problem #3:
    : Need body support
  44. Solutions to problem 3, Need body support
  45. •Vascular tissue
    • •Turgor Pressure: Central Vacuole (“pocket” of water)
    • pushes against cellulose cell wall, gives cell shape
    • –Wilting is caused by a lack of turgor pressure
  46. •Gametophyte: Haploid
    generation
    • –Produces
    • haploid gametes by mitosis

    • –Dominant
    • generation for nonvascular plants
  47. •Sporophyte: Diploid generation
    • –Produces
    • spores by meiosis
    • –Dominant
    • generation for vascular plants
  48. Nonvascular
    Plants
    Mosses, liverworts, hornworts
  49. Nonvascular Plants habitats
    •Confined to cool, damp environments

    • –Rely on osmosis for distribution of water
    • and nutrients (no vascular system!)
    • –Gametes require water for movement
    • •Flagellated sperm produced in antheridia,
    • must swim
    • •Eggs produced in archegonia
  50. Nonvascular Plants reproductive details
    • •Gametophyte dominant
    • •Sporophyte nutritionally dependent on gametophyte
  51. Seedless Vascular Plants:
    • •Sporophyte-dominant, nutritionally independent of gametophyte
    • •Water-necessary for sexual reproduction
  52. •Stele types:
    how vascular bundles are arranged…
  53. •Stele
    types:
    how vascular bundles are arranged…
  54. Stele types:
    •Protostele:
    • •Protostele:
    • phloem surrounding xylem core
  55. Stele types:
    Siphonostele:
    xylem and phloem surround pith
  56. Stele types:
    •Eustele: discrete vascular bundles surround pith
  57. Seedless
    Vascular Plant Phyla
    • •whisk ferns
    • •true ferns
    • horsetails or “scouring rushes”
  58. Trends in Plant Evolution (3)
  59. •Greater efficiency of water transport
    • •Reduction in size and dominance of
    • gametophyte (relative to sporophyte)
    • •Shift from Homospory to Heterospory
  60. Genius
    specices
    • Genius- caps
    • specices-lowercase, usually afterwords

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