BIOL 1544

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murry2008
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136520
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BIOL 1544
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2012-03-05 15:19:52
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  1. A plant organ that functions in anchorage and absorption
    Root
  2. A plant axis with leaves or enations
    Stem
  3. A flattened, usually photosynthetic structure arranged in various ways on a stem.
    Leaf
  4. Plant structure that contains reproductive organs and associated tissues
    Flower
  5. A region of undifferentiated cells in which new cells arise
    Meristem
  6. A meristem at the tip of a shoot or root
    Apical meristem
  7. The primary meristem that gives rise to the epidermis
    Protoderm
  8. Meristem that produces all the primary tissues other than the epidermis stele (e.g., cortex, pith)
    Ground meristem
  9. A primary meristematic tissue that differentiates into primary xylem and phloem
    procambium
  10. A tissue produced by an apical meristem (e.g., epidermis, cortex, primary sylem and phloem, pith)
    primary tissue
  11. region in a plant that produces tissue that increases the girth of roots and stems
    lateral meristem
  12. a narrow, cylindrical sheath of cells that produces secondary xylem and phloem in stems and roots
    vascular cambium
  13. a meristem producing secondary tissues
    cambium
  14. a narrow cylindrical sheath of cells between the exterior of a woody root or stem and the central vascular tissue; it produces cork to its exterior and phelloderm to its interior
    cork cambium
  15. region of a stem where one or more leaves are attached
    node
  16. thin-walled cells varying in size, shape, and function; the most common type of plant cell
    parenchyma
  17. tissue composed of parenchyma cells that contain chloroplasts
    chlorenchyma
  18. tissue composed of cells with unevenly thickened walls
    collenchyma
  19. tissue composed of lignified cells with thick walls; the tissue functions primarily in strengthening and support
    sclerenchyma
  20. the tissue through which most of the water and dissolved minerals utilized by a plant are conducted; it consists of several cell types
    xylem
  21. one of usually very numerous cylindrical "tubes" whose cells have lost their cytoplasm; occur in the xylem of most angiosperms and a few other vascular plants
    vessel
  22. a single cell of a vessel
    vessel element
  23. a xylem cell that is tapered at the ends and has thick walls containing pits
    tracheid
  24. a more or less round or elliptical thin area in a cell wall; occur in pairs opposite each other, with or without shallow, domelike borders
    pit
  25. thickened region of the pit membrane
    torus
  26. radially oriented tiers of parenchyma cells that conduct food, water, and other materials laterally in the stems and roots of woody plants; they are generally continuous across the vascular cambium between the xylem and the phloem
    ray
  27. the food-conducting tissue of a vascular plant
    phloem
  28. a single cell of a sieve tube
    sieve tube member
  29. a column of sieve tube members arranged end to end; food is conducted from cell to cell through sieve plates
    sieve tube
  30. an area of the wall of a sieve tube member that contains several to many perforations that permit cytoplasmic connctions between similar adjacent cells, the cytoplasmic strands being larger than plasmodesmata
    sieve plate
  31. a specialized cell derived form the same parent cell as the closely assocaited sieve tube member immediately adjacent to it (in angiosperm phloem)
    companion cell
  32. the exterior tissue, usually one cell thick, of leaves, young stems and roots, and other parts of plants
    epidermis
  33. an aerial root with a multilayered epidermis believed to function in retarding moisture loss
    velamen root
  34. the waxy or fatty substance of which a cuticle is composed
    cutin
  35. a waxy or fatty layer of varying thickness on the outer walls of epidermal cells
    cuticle
  36. a minute pore or opening in the epidermis of leaves, herbaceous stems, and the sporophytes of hornworts; it is flanked by two guard cells that regulate its opening and closing and thus regulate gas exchange and transpiration
    stoma (pl. stomata)
  37. one of a pair of specialized cells surrounding a stoma
    guard cell
  38. a small body of variable shape and size that may secrete certain substances but that also may be functionless
    gland
  39. tissue composed of cells whose walls are impregnated with suberin at maturity; the outer layer of tissue of an older woody stem; produced by the cork cambium
    cork
  40. a fatty substance found primarily in the cell walls of cork and the Casparian strips of endodermal cells
    suberin
  41. one of usually numerous, slightly raised, somewhat spongy groups of cells in the bark of woody plants; they permit gas exchange between the interior of a plant and the external atmosphere
    lenticle
  42. cell or tissue producing a substance or substances that are moved outside the cells
    secretory cell, tissue
  43. an immature sporophyte that develops from a zygote within an ovule or archegonium after fertilization
    embryo
  44. the part of an embryo in a seed that develops into a root
    radicle
  45. a thimble-shaped mass of cells at the tip of a growing root; functions primarily in protection
    root cap
  46. a colorless, starch-forming plastid found in roots and involved in gravity perception
    amyloplast
  47. area of actively dividing cells at an apical meristem
    region of cell division
  48. the primary meristem that gives rise to the epidermis
    protoderm
  49. area near an apical meristem in which cells grow in length and width
    region of elongation
  50. area of maturing cells near an apical meristem
    region of differentiation
  51. a delicate protuberance that is part of an epidermal cell of a root; occur in a zone behind the growing tip
    root hair
  52. area of cells in a root in which protuberances of epidermal cells can be found
    root-hair zone
  53. a primary tissue composed mainly of parenchyma; the tissue usally extends between the epidermis and the vascular tissue
    cortex
  54. a single layer of cells surrounding the vascular tissue (stele) in roots and some stems; the cells have Casparian strips
    endodermis
  55. a band of suberin around the radial and transverse walls of an endodermal cell
    Casparian strip
  56. a thin-walled cell of an endodermis
    passage cell
  57. a core of tissues, including xylem and phloem, that lies to the inside of the endodermis
    vascular cylinder
  58. tissue sandwiched between the endodermis and phloem of a root; often only one or two cells wide in transverse section; the site of origin of lateral roots
    pericycle
  59. said of buds developing in internodes or on roots, or of roots developing along stems or on leaves
    adventitious
  60. spongy root extending above the surface of the water, produced by a plant growing in water; facilitate oxygen absorption
    pneumatophore
  61. root formed above ground
    aerial root
  62. a protuberance of a fungal hypha or plant organ such as a root that functions as a penetrating and absorbing structure
    haustorium (pl. haustoria)
  63. a symbiotic assocaition between fungal hyphae and a plant root
    mycorrhiza (pl. mycorrhizae)
  64. a small swelling associated with nitrogen-fixing bacteria that invade the roots of leguminous plants and alders
    root nodule
  65. water that is chemicaly bound to soil particles and therefore unavailable to plants
    hygroscopic water
  66. water that drains out of the pore spaces of a soil after a rain
    gravitational water
  67. water held in the soil against the force of gravity
    capillary water
  68. a stem region between nodes
    internode
  69. the conspicuous flattened part of a leaf (also called lamina) or seaweed
    blade
  70. the stalk of a leaf
    petiole
  71. the angle formed between a tig and the petiole of a leaf; normally the site of an axillary bud (also called lateral bud)
    axil
  72. one of a pair of appendages of varying size, shape, and texture present at the base of the leaves of some plants
    stipule
  73. shedding leaves annually
    deciduous
  74. a small scar left by a vascular bundle within a leaf scar when the leaf separates from its stem through abscision
    bundle scar
  75. the parenchyma and/or sclerenchyma cells surrounding a vascular bundle
    bundle sheath
  76. the suberin-covered scar left on a twig when a leaf separates from it through abscission
    leaf scar
  77. an organ or structure (e.g., leaf, bud) at its earliest stage of development
    primordium
  78. central tissue of a dicot stem and certain roots; it usually consists of parenchyma cells that become proportionately less of the volume of woody plants as cambial activity increases the organ's girth
    pith
  79. a parenchyma-filled interruption in a stem's cylinder of vascular tissue immediately above the point at which a branch of vascular tisue (leaf trace) leading to a leaf occurs
    leaf gap
  80. thumbnail-shaped opening in the cylinder of vascular tissue
    bud gap
  81. a narrow, cylindrical sheath of cells that produces secondary xylem and phloem in stems and roots
    vascular cambium
  82. tissue produced to the inside of the cork cambium
    phelloderm
  83. an embryo leaf ("seed leaf") that usually either stores or absorbs food
    cotyledon
  84. a class of angiosperms whose seeds commonly have two cotyledons
    dicotyledon
  85. a class of angiosperms whose seeds have a single cotyledon
    monocotyledon
  86. a plant that completes its entire life cycle in a single growing season
    annual
  87. nonliving, usually darker-colored wood whose cells have ceased to function in water conduction
    heartwood
  88. outer layers of wood that transport water and minerals in a tree trunk; usually lighter in color than heartwood
    sapwood
  89. an underground stem, usually horizontally oriented, that may be superficially rootlike in appearance but that has definite nodes and internodes
    rhizome
  90. specialized cells or ducts resembling vessels; they form branched networks of latex-secreting cells in the phloem and other parts of plants
    laticifer
  91. a stem that grows horizontally along the surface of the ground; typically has long internodes
    runner
  92. a stem that grows vertically below the surface of the ground; it typically has relatively long internodes
    stolon
  93. a swollen, fleshy underground stem (e.g., white potato)
    tuber
  94. an underground food-storage organ that is essentially a modified bud consisting of fleshy leaves that surround and are attached to a small stem
    bulb
  95. a vertically oriented, thickened food-storage stem that is usually enveloped by a few papery, nonfunctional leaves
    corm
  96. a flattened stem that resembles a leaf
    cladophyll
  97. a slender structure that coils on contact with a support of suitable diameter; it usually is a modified leaf or leaflet and aids the plant in climbing
    tendril
  98. a portion of the base of a branch enclosed within wood
    knot
  99. without petiole or pedicel; attached directly by the base
    sessile
  100. a leaf with the blade undivided into leaflets
    simple leaf
  101. a leaf whose blade is divided into distinct leaflets
    compound leaf
  102. having leaflets or veins on both sides of a common axis (e.g., rachis, midrib) to which they are attached
    pinnately compund; pinnately veined
  103. having leaflets or principal veins radiating out from a common point
    palmately compund; palmately veined
  104. the axis of a pinnately compound leaf or frond extending between the lowermost leaflets or pinnae and the terminal leaflet or pinna (corresponds with the midrib of a simple leaf)
    rachis
  105. loss of water in vapor form; most takes place through the stomata
    transpiration
  106. the exudation from leaves of water in liquid form due to root pressure
    guttation
  107. placed at different heights or distance from one another, as leaves can be arranged on a stem
    alternate
  108. placed at same heights or distance from one another, as leaves can be arranged on a stem
    opposite
  109. having three or more leaves or other structures at a node
    whorled
  110. the central (main) vein of a pinnately veined leaf or leaflet
    midrib
  111. primary region of vascular tissue, usually spanning and the center of a leaf
    midvein
  112. parenchma (chlorenchyma) tissue between the upper and lower epidermis of a leaf
    mesophyll
  113. mesophyll having one or more relatively uniform rows of tightly packed, elongate, columnar parenchym ccells beneath the upper epidermis of a leaf
    palisade mesophyll
  114. mesophyll haiving loosely arranged cells and numerous air spaces; it is generally confined to the lower part of the interior of a leaf just above the lower epidermis
    spongy mesophyll
  115. a relatively strong, sharp-pointed, woody structure usually located on a stem; it is usually a modified leaf or stipule
    spine
  116. a pointed outgrowth from an epidermis or cortex beneath the epidermis
    prickle
  117. a structure that is usally leaflike and modified in size, shape, or color
    bract
  118. the separation of leaves, flowers, and fruits from plants after the formation of an abscission zone at the base of their petioles, peducles, and pedicels
    abscission
  119. the stalk of a solitary flower or the main stalk of an inflorescence
    peduncle
  120. The individual stalk of a flower that is part of an inflorescence
    pedicel
  121. the commonly expanded tip of a peducle or pedicel to which the various parts of a flower are attached
    receptacle
  122. a unit of the calyx that frequently resembles a reduced leaf; often function in protecting the unopened flower bud
    sepal
  123. collective term for the sepals of a flower
    calyx
  124. collective term for the petals of a flower
    corolla
  125. the calyx and corolla of a flower
    perianth
  126. a pollen-producing structure of a flower; it consists of an anther and usually also a filament
    stamen
  127. a female reproductive structure of a flower, composed of one or more carpels and consisting of an ovary, style, and stigma
    pistil
  128. a structure derived from the microspore of seed plants that develops into a male gametophyte
    pollen grain
  129. the pollen receptive area of a pistil
    stigma
  130. the structure that connects a stigma and an ovary
    style
  131. a collective term for a group of flowers attached to a common axis in a specific arrangement
    inflorescence
  132. the outermost layer of a fruit wall
    exocarp
  133. the innermost layer of a fruit wall
    endocarp
  134. the middle region of the fruit wall that lies between the exocarp and the endocarp
    mesocarp
  135. collective term for all the layers of a fruit wall
    pericarp
  136. a fruit that develops from a single pistil
    simple fleshy fruit
  137. a simple fleshy fruit whose single seed is enclosed within a hard endocarp
    drupe
  138. a thin-skinned fruit that usually develops from a compound ovary and commonly contains more than one seed
    berry
  139. a simply fleshy fruit whose flesh is derived primarily from the receptacle
    pome
  140. a dry fruit that splits along one side only
    follicle
  141. a dry fruit that splits along two "seams," the seeds being attached along the edges
    legume
  142. a dry fruit that splits along two "seams," with the seeds borne on a central partition
    silique
  143. a dry fruit that splits in various ways at maturity, often along or between carpel margins; also the main part of a sporophyte in which different types of tissues develop
    capsule
  144. a single-seeded fruit in which the seed is attached to the pericarp only at its base
    achene
  145. a dry fruit in which the pericarp is tightly fused to the seed; it does not split at maturity
    caryopsis
  146. a dry fruit whose pericarp extends around the seed in the form of a wing
    samara
  147. a twin fruit unique to the Parsley Family
    schizocarp
  148. a fruit derived from a single flower having several to many pistils
    aggregate fruit
  149. a fruit derived from several to many individual flowers in a single inflorescence
    multiple fruit

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