Psych 111 Exam 2 - Ch 7 Summary

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jess4444
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Psych 111 Exam 2 - Ch 7 Summary
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2012-02-22 01:06:46
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Chapter 7 Summary
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  1. Chapter 7's Eight Summary Questions
    • -How does attention determine what is remembered?
    • -What are the basic stages of memory?
    • -What are the different long-term memory systems?
    • -How is information memorized in long-term memory?
    • -What brain processes are involved in memory?
    • -When do people forget?
    • -How are memories distorted?
    • -How can we improve learning and memory?
  2. How does attention determine what is remembered?
    • -visual attention is selective and serial
    • -auditory attention allows selective listening
    • -selective attention can operate at multiple stages of processing
  3. What are the basic stages of memory?
    • -sensory memory is brief
    • -working memory is active
    • -long-term memory is relatively permanent
  4. What are the different long-term memory systems?
    • -explicit memory involves conscious effort
    • -implicit memory occurs without deliberate effort
    • -prospective memory is remembering to do something
  5. How is information memorized in long-term memory?
    • -long-term memory is based on meaning
    • -schemas provide an organizational framework
    • -inforrmation is stored in association networks
    • -retrieval cues provide access to long-term storage
  6. What brain processes are involved in memory?
    • -there has been intensive effort to identify memory's physical location
    • -the medial temporal lobes are important for consolidation of declarative memories
    • -the frontal lobes are involved in many aspects of memory
    • -neurochemistry underlies memory
  7. When do people forget?
    • -Transience is caused by interference
    • -blocking is temporary
    • -absentmindedness results from shallow encoding
    • -amnesia is a deficit in long-term memory
  8. How are memories distorted?
    • -flashbulb memories can be wrong
    • -people make source misattributions
    • -people are bad eyewitnesses
    • -people have false memories
    • -repressed memories are controversial
    • -people reconstruct events to be consistent
    • -neuroscience may make it possible to distinguish between "true" and "false" memories
  9. How can we improve learning and memory?
    -mnemonics are useful strategies for learning
  10. How does attention determine what is remembered?

    -Visual attention is selective and serial:
    Simple searches for stimuli that differ in only one primary factor (e.g., size, color, orientation) occur automatically and rapidly, but searches for objects that are the conjunction of two or more properties (e.g, red and large) occur slowly and serially.
  11. How does attention determine what is remembered?

    -Audiory attention allows selective listening:
    We can attend to more than one message at a time but not well. Evidence indicates that we weakly process some unattended information.
  12. How does attention determine what is remembered?

    -Selective attention can operate at multiple stages of processing:
    We often miss large object in our visual field when we are attending to something else, a phenomenon known as change blindness.
  13. What are the basic stages of memory?

    -Sensory memory is brief:
    Visual and auditory memories are maintained long enough to ensure a continuous sensory experience.
  14. What are the basic stages of memory?

    -Working memory is active:
    • Immediate active memory is limited. Chunking reduces information into units that are easier to remember. The four components of working memory are:
    • -central executive
    • -phonological loop
    • -visuospatial sketchpad
    • -episodi buffer
  15. What are the basic stages of memory?

    -Long-term memory is relatively permanent:
    Long-term memory (LTM) is the potentially indefinite storage of all memories. Meaningful memories are stored in LTM in networklike structures.
  16. What are the different memory long-term systems?

    -Explicit memory involves conscious effort:
    Explicit, declarative memories that we consciously remember include personal events (episodic memory) and general knowledge (semantic memory).
  17. What are the different memory long-term systems?

    -Implicit memory occurs without deliberate effort:
    Procedural (motor) memories of how to do things automatically are implicit.
  18. What are the different memory long-term systems?

    -Prospective memory is remembering to do something:
    Prospective memory has "costs" in terms of reducing attention and reducing working memory capacity.
  19. How is information organized in long-term memory?

    -Long-term memory is based on meaning :
    Memory processes include encoding, storage, and retrieval. Elaborative rehearsal involves encoding information in more meaningful ways and results in better memory than maintanence (repetition) rehearsal.
  20. How is information organized in long-term memory?

    -Schemas provide an organizational framework:
    Schemas, cognitive structures of meaning, aid the organization of memories. Cultural variations in schemas produce differences in how information is remembered.
  21. How is information organized in long-term memory?

    -Information is stored in association networks:
    Networks of associations are formed by nodes of information, which are linked together and are activated by spreading activation.
  22. How is information organized in long-term memory?

    -Retrieval cues provide access to long-term storage:
    According to the encoding specificity principle, any stimulus encoded along with an experience can later trigger the memory of the experience. The memory's context is also activated.
  23. What brain processes are involved in memory?

    -There has been intensive effort to identify Memory's physical location:
    Research has revealed that a number of specific brain regions contribute to learning and memory.
  24. What brain processes are involved in memory?

    -The medial temporal lobes are important for consolidation of declarative memories:
    The process of consolidation of new memories involves changes in neural connections. The hippocampus, a structure in the medial temporal lobe, is important for declarative memories. Place cells in the hippocampus aid spatial memory.
  25. What brain processes are involved in memory?

    -The frontal lobes are involved in many aspects of memory:
    Extensive neural networks connect the frontal lobes with other memory regions of the brain. Activation of neurons in the frontal lobe is associated with deeper meaning.
  26. What brain processes are involved in memory?

    -Neurochemistry underlies memory:
    Neurochemicals modulate the storage of memories. Epinephrine enhances memory. The amygdala is probably responsible for memory modulation through activity in its norepinephrone receptors.
  27. When do people forget?

    -Transience is caused by interference:
    Forgettting over time occurs because of interference from both old and new information.
  28. When do people forget?

    -Blocking is temporary:
    The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon is a person's temporary trouble retrieving the right word, usually due to interference from a similar word.
  29. When do people forget?

    -Absentmindednes results from shallow encoding:
    Inattentive or shallow processing causes memory failure.
  30. When do people forget?

    -Amnesia is a deficit in long-term memory:
    Both injury and disease can result in amnesia, either the inability to recall past memories (retrograde) or the inability to form new memories (anterograde).
  31. How are memories distorted?

    -Flashbulb memories can be wrong:
    The strong emotional response that attends a flashbulb memory may affect the memory's strength and accuracy.
  32. How are memories distorted?

    -People make source misattributions:
    A person can misremember the source of a memory (source misattribution). In cryptomnesia, a person thinks he or she has come up with a new idea, but has only retrieved a memory.
  33. How are memories distorted?

    -People are bad eyewitnesses:
    Poor eyewitness recall occurs, particularly when people try to identify those of other ethnicities. Suggestibility leads to misinformation.
  34. How are memories distorted?

    -People have false memories:
    Immature frontal lobes cause childhood amnesia. False memories can be implanted. Confabulation can occure because of brain damage.
  35. How are memories distorted?

    -Repressed memories are controversial:
    Some therapeutic techniques can result in false repressed memories.
  36. How are memories distorted?

    -Peole reconstruct events to be consistent:
    People tend to maintain consistency between their past memories, their current knowledge, and their current attitudes.
  37. How are memories distorted?

    -Neuroscience may make it possible to distinguish between "true" and "false memories:
    By examining brain activity at encoding and retrieval, researchers hope to distinguish true from false memories. The current research has many flaws, but the technique may be improved.
  38. How can we improve learning and memory?

    -Mnemonics are useful strategies for learning:
    Mnemonics include practicing at retrieval through frequent testing, overlearning, getting enough sleep, spacing study sessions, and using imagery.

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