Pharmocotherapy.txt

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pamlangley02
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136561
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Pharmocotherapy.txt
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2012-02-20 18:43:31
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Chapter 3 & 4
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  1. Any chemical substance ingested or applied on the body for the purpose of affecting body function is referred to as a
    Drug
  2. Sources of Drugs.
    Plants, Minerals, Animals, Synthetic, DNA
  3. Example, Trade Name and classification of Plant.
    • Poppy Plant
    • Morphine
    • Analgesic
  4. Example, Trade Name & classification of Mineral.
    • Gold
    • Auranofin
    • Anti-inflammatory
  5. Example, Trade Name & classification of Animal.
    • Pancreas of cow
    • insulin
    • antidiabetic hormone
  6. Example, Trade Name & classification of synthetic.
    • Meperdine
    • Demerol
    • Analgesic
  7. Example, Trade Name & classification of DNA.
    • Hepatitis B vaccine
    • NA
    • vaccine
  8. application of computer technology, stats & math to study info about structure, properties & activities of molecules.
    chemoinformatics
  9. alteration of genes done in lab setting.
    genetic engineering (recombinant DNA)
  10. reaches widespread areas of the body.
    systemic effect
  11. limited to the area of body where administered.
    local effect
  12. passage of substance through membrane into the bloodstream.
    absorption
  13. moving from bloodstream into the tissues & fluids of body.
    distribution
  14. physical & chemical alterations that a substance undergoes in body.
    metabolism
  15. eliminating waste products of drug metabolism from body.
    excretion
  16. variables that affect the speed & efficiency of drugs being processed
    • age.
    • weight
    • gender
    • psychological state
  17. action of 2 drugs working together where 1 helps the other for an effect neither could produce alone.
    synergism
  18. action of 2 drugs where 1 prolongs or multiplies effect of other.
    potentiation
  19. opposing action of 2 drugs where 1 decreases or cancels out effect of the other drug.
    antagonism
  20. smallest dose of drug that will produce therapeutic effect.
    minimum dose
  21. largest amount of drug that will produce desired effect w/o producing symptoms of toxicity.
    maximum dose
  22. initial high dose used to quickly elevate the level of drug in blood.
    loading dose
  23. dose required to keep drug blood level at a steadyt state in order to maintain desired effect.
    maintenance dose
  24. amount of drug that will produce harmful side effects or symptoms of poisoning.
    toxic dose
  25. dose that causes death.
    lethal dose
  26. dose that is customarily given adjusted according to variations from the norm.
    therapeutic dose
  27. effect from maternal drug admin that causes development of physical defects in fetus.
    teratogenic effect
  28. unique, unusual, & unexpected response to a drug.
    idiosyncrasy
  29. opposite effect from that expected.
    paradoxical
  30. decreased response to a drug that develops after repeated doses are given.
    tolerance
  31. acquired need for a drug that may produce psychological or physical symptoms of withdrawal when drug is discontinued.
    dependence
  32. immune response(allergy) to a drug may be of varying degrees.
    hypersensitivity
  33. severe, possibly fatal, allergic response.
    anaphylactice reaction
  34. provides a constant, even flow of a drug over a long period of time.
    dermal or transdermal patch
  35. any route not involving the GI tract, including injection, topical & inhalation.
    parenteral
  36. disk of compressed drug.
    tablet (oral)
  37. tablet w/special coating that resists disintegration by gastric juices.
    enteric-coated tablet (oral)
  38. drug contained w/i a gelatin-type container.
    capsule (oral)
  39. capsule containing drug particles that have various coatings that differ in the amount of time required before the coatings dissolve.
    timed-release capsule (oral)
  40. tablet containing palatable flavoring, indicated for a local effect on throat or mouth.
    lozenge (oral)
  41. liquid form of med. that must be shaken well before admin. because drug particles settle at bottom.
    suspension (oral)
  42. liquid drug prepartion that contains oils & fats in water.
    emulsion
  43. liquid drug forms w/alcohol base.
    elixir
  44. sweetened, flavored liquid drug form.
    syrup
  45. liquid drug form in which the drug is totally & evenly dissolved.
    solution
  46. drug suspended in a substance, such as cocoa butter, that melts at body temp.
    suppository (rectal)
  47. drug suspended in solution to be admin. as an enema.
    enema solution
  48. drug suspended or dissolved in a sterile vehicle.
    liquid (injectable)
  49. dry particles of drugs, powder itself cannot be injected, must be mixed.
    powder (injectable)
  50. injected directly into vein, immediate absorption.
    intravenous
  51. small volume of drug injected into a peripheral saline lock attached to a vein.
    IV push
  52. large volume of fluids, often w/drugs added, that infuses continually into a vein.
    IV infusion or drip
  53. drug diluted in moderate volume of fluid for intermittent infusion at specified intervals, 2 bags through IV to dilute.
    IV piggyback
  54. injected into fatty layer of tissue below skin by positioning needle & syringe at a 45 degree angle.
    subcutaneous
  55. injected just beneath the skin, by positioning needle bevel up & syringe at a 15 degree angle from skin.
    intradermal
  56. injected into a catheter that has been placed by an anesthesiologist in epidural space of spinal canal.
    epidural
  57. less common parenteral routes, physican admin only.
    • intraosseous
    • intraventricular
    • intraspinal
    • intracapsular
  58. injected directly into marrow of long bones.
    intraosseous
  59. drugs injected directly into heart's ventricles.
    intraventricular
  60. injected into the subarachnoid space, which contains cerebrospinal fluid.
    intraspinal
  61. injected into the capsule of a joint.
    intracapsular
  62. semisolid prep. containing a drug for external application.
    cream or ointment (topical)
  63. liquid prep. applied externally for treatment of skin disorders.
    lotion (topical)
  64. prep. for external use that is rubbed on skin as a counterirritant.
    liniment
  65. drugs in sterile liquids to be applied by drops.
    eye, ear, and nose drops (gtt)
  66. sterile semisolid prep. often antibiotic in nature, for ophthalmic use only.
    eye ointment
  67. medicated cream that are to be inserted vaginally w/ the use of a special applicator.
    vaginal cream
  68. sterile solution used to irrigate vaginal canal.
    douche solution
  69. tablet that is absorbed via the buccal mucosa in the mouth.
    buccal tablet
  70. tablet that is absorbed via the mucosa under the tongue.
    sublingual tablet
  71. small glass container that holds a single dose of sterile solution for injection, must be broken at neck to obtain solution.
    ampule
  72. glass container sealed at top by a rubber stopper.
    vial
  73. 3 most common disposable syringes for parenteral admin.
    • hypodermic
    • tuberculin (TB)
    • insulin
  74. historically, these were the primary source of drugs, and bark, berries, leaves, resin from trees & roots are still important drug sources.
    plants
  75. iron, sulfar, potassium, silver and gold are examples of ___ used to prepare drugs.
    minerals
  76. when introduced into the body, all drugs cause cellular changes or drug actions that are followed by physiological changes called.
    effects of drugs
  77. medications contraindicated for lactating mothers have the ability to pass through the ___ into the breast milk of the mother.
    cell membranes
  78. when drug compounds are produced from artificial rather than natural substances, the sources are called.
    synthetic
  79. drugs of a slightly acidic nature are absorbed well within the acidic ___ mucosa.
    stomach
  80. drugs of an alkaline pH are absorbed better through the alkaline environment of the.
    small intestine
  81. can be used to make a drug for the treatment of growth disorders.
    pituatary gland from cadavers
  82. this recent investigational drug was used to slow the progression of dementia in some patients w/alzheimers disease & has been recalled because it produces liver toxicity.
    Tacrine ( Cognex)
  83. an investigational drug develeped in the 90's that has been used to treat many different malignancies and the management of AIDS related Kaposi's sarcoma.
    Interferon (Roferon A)
  84. new combination drug for simultaneous treatment of high blood pressure and high cholestrol.
    Caduet combines Norvasc & Lipitor
  85. route of drug admin that is the easiest, but the effects are slower because of the time required for disintegration of drugs in the alimentary canal before absorption.
    oral
  86. fastest route of drug admin because drugs enter the blood stream immediately.
    intravenous
  87. route of drug admin w/immediate effects can be quite dangerous if given in amounts recommended for other routes.
    intravenous
  88. getting an accurate drug history & clearly listing of ____ is a critical function of the health practitioner.
    known allergies
  89. dibucaine ointment applied rectally, reducing hemorrhoidal pain.
    local effect of a drug
  90. movement of meds from the blood stream into the tissues & fluids of the body.
    distribution
  91. an affinity or attraction of a drug to a specific organ or cells.
    selective distribution
  92. a patient w/hepatic disease may exhibit toxic effects of a drug due to altered metabolism because the drug is not.
    being properly broken down by the inefficient liver
  93. the goal of drug therapy is to give just enough of the drug to cause this effect.
    therapieutic
  94. if patients circulation & renal function are inadequate after admin of digoxin, which cumulative effect is produced.
    dangerously low heart rate
  95. when are placebos most often used in health care.
    patients participating in blind study experiments
  96. sedatives & barbiturates given in combination, resulting in depression of the central nervous system.
    undesirable synergism
  97. physician's choice of a particular route of medication admin has the greatest significance for.
    how rapidly or slowly the results are desired
  98. persons who have had an anaphylactic reaction to a substance should always.
    wear a medic-alert tag or bracelet to idenitify the substance they are allergic to
  99. treatment for anaphylactic reaction may include CPR and.
    epinephrine, a corticosterioid and antihistamine
  100. T/F substances low in lipid solubility are absorbed best when given by a means other than the GI tract.
    T
  101. T/F oral elixar meds admin to infants are always absorbed better if given w/ or just after formula.
    F
  102. T/F if a fast drug effect is desired an empty stomach will facilitate quicker absorption.
    T
  103. T/F during biotransformation in the liver a drug is broken down & altered to more water soluble by products so that it may be more easily excreted by kidneys.
    T
  104. T/F digoxin is a cardiac drug that must be given cautiously because of its cumulative effect called digoxin toxicity.
    T
  105. T/F metabolism & excretion are more rapid in older adults & therefor attention must be paid to possible cumulative effects.
    F
  106. T/F many drug dosages are calculated on the basis of the patients weight.
    T
  107. T/F there are few individual variations in sensitivity to drugs.
    F
  108. T/F attention must be paid to the variable of gender when admin meds because the rate of fat per by mass differs in men & women.
    T
  109. T/F an example of a desirable antagonism is a narcotic antagonist that saves lives from drug overdose by canceling out the effecct of narcotics.
    T
  110. T/F the intramuscular route is the best route for emergencies because of speed of action.
    F
  111. T/F inhalation route of drug admin is often more effective & easier for patient.
    F
  112. tuberculin skin tests are admin through which route.
    intradermal
  113. what drug form is designed to deliver a dose of drug over an extended period of time.
    sustained-release capsule
  114. only physicians can administer meds by this type of parenteral route.
    intraspinal
  115. oral route of admin is the route of choice of most patients because.
    its cheapest and easiest
  116. small volume of drug injected through a syringe & needle into a peripheral saline lock.
    IV push
  117. # that represents the diameter of the needle lumen & ranges from 18 to 27 is called.
    gauge
  118. 2nd fastest route of drug admin.
    inhalation

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