OPMT Chapt. 9 & 10

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OPMT Chapt. 9 & 10
2012-04-30 01:56:29

OPMT Chapt. 9 & 10
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  1. quality
    the ability of a product or service to consistently meet or exceed customer requirements or expectations
  2. quality of design
    intention of designers to include or exclude certain features in a product or service; involves decisions on specific characteristics of a product or service like shape, size, and location; must take into account customer wants, product or service capabilities, safety and liability, costs, etc.
  3. quality of conformance
    the degree to which good or services conform to (achieve) the intent of the designers (specifications); affected by the capability of equipment used, the skills & training & motivation of workers, the taking of corrective action when necessary,etc.
  4. appraisal costs
    costs of activities designed to ensure quality or uncover defects; measuring,evaluating, and auditing materials, part, products, and services to assess conformance with quality standards; relate to inspection, testing, test equipment, and labs
  5. prevention costs
    costs of preventing defects from occurring; reducing the potential for quality problems; TQ training, TQ planning, customer assessment, process control, working with vendors, quality improvement costs, and extra attention in both design and production phases
  6. failure costs
    costs caused by defective parts or products or by faulty services; internal=discovered during the production process, before delivered to customers, from defective material, incorrect machine settings, carelessness= lost production time, scrap and rework, and equipment damage
  7. ISO 9000
    a set of international standards on quality management and quality assurance, critical to international business; concerns what an organization does to ensure that its products or services conform to its customers' requirements
  8. ISO 14000
    a set of internation standards for assessing a company's environmental performance; concerns what an organization does to minimize harmful effects to the environment caused by its operations
  9. ISO 24700
    a set of international standards that pertains to the quality and performance of office equipment that contains reused components
  10. total quality management (TQM)
    a philosophy that involves everyone in an organization in a continual effort to improve quality and achieve customer satisfacation
  11. fail-safing
    incorporating design elements that prevent incorrect procedures; make the process mistake-proof; ex. parts that fit together one way only and appliance plugs that can be inserted into a wall outlet the correct way only
  12. continuous improvement
    philosophy that seeks to make never-ending improvements to all factors related to the process of converting inputs to outputs; just because it isn't broke doesn't mean it can't be improved
  13. quality at the source
    the philosophy of making each worker responsible for the quality of his or her work; do it right the first time and if it isn't right, fix it
  14. six sigma
    a business process for improving quality, reducing costs, & increasing customer satisfaction; statisical meaning= having no more than 3.4 defects per million opportunities in any process, product, or service; conceptual meaning= program designed to reduce defects & requires the use of certain tools & techniques
  15. lean/six sigma
    a balanced approach to process improvement that integrates principles from lean operation and statistical tools for variation reduction from six sigma to achieve speed and quality; equally applicable to products and services
  16. plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycle
    a framework for problem solving and improvement activities; also known as the Shewhart cycle or the Deming wheel
  17. control chart
    a statistical chart (plot) of time-ordered values of a sample statistic; used to monitor process to see if the output is random (or nonrandom); can help to detect the presence of correctable causes of variation; can indicate when a problem occurred and give insight into what caused the problem
  18. run chart
    tool for tracking results over a period of time; aids in identifying trends or other patterns that may be occurring; advantages= ease of construction and ease of interpretation
  19. benchmarking
    process of measuring an organization's performance on a key customer requirement against the best in the same or another industry; purpose= to establish a standard against which performance is judged and to identify a model for learning how to improve; demonstrates degree to which customers are satisfied
  20. quality control
    a process that evaluates output relative to a standard and takes corrective action when output doesn't meet standards; if results acceptable, no further action required; purpose= to assure processes are performing in an acceptable manner, which is accomplished by monitoring process output using statistical techniques
  21. inspection
    an appraisal activity that compares goods or services to a standard; provide information on the degree to which items conform to a standard;
  22. statistical process control
    used to evaluate process output to decide if a process is "in control" or if corrective action is needed; statistical evaulation of the output of a process;
  23. random variation
    natural variation in the output of a process, created by countless minor factors; common cause, chance; all we can do is find out how we are going to adapt to it
  24. assignable variation
    a variation whose cause can be identified in the process output and eliminated; nonrandom, special cause; typical sources= tool wear, equipment that needs adjustment, defective materials, human factors (carelessness, fatigue, noise, distractions, failure to follow correct producedures), and problems with measuring devices
  25. central limit theorem
    states that as the sample size increases, the distribution of sample averages approaches normal distribution regardless of the shape of the sampled population (process distribution)
  26. Type I Error
    concluding a process is not in control when it actually is; concluding that nonrandomness is present when only randomness is present; probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is true; searching for a problem when none exists; recall, destroy, or correct= waste of money; a.k.a. alpha risk; alpha= the sum of the probabilities in the 2 tails
  27. Type II error
    concluding that a process is in control when it is really out of control; concluding nonrandom variations are not present, when they actually are; the probability of failing to reject the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is false; not searching for a problem when one does exist; a.k.a consumer's risk