Unit 3 vocab WHAP

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Unit 3 vocab WHAP
2012-02-21 00:20:11

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  1. 5 Pillars of Faith
    • The five duties most important to a Muslim.
    • 1. Profession of faith in G-d and Muhammad
    • 2. Prayer facing Mecca 5 times a day
    • 3. Almsgiving to the poor
    • 4. Fasting during Ramadan
    • 5. Hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca
    • The Islamic faith was built upon these 5 pillars.
  2. Astrolabe
    • Definition: An astronomical instrument for taking the altitude of the sun or stars and for the solution of other problems in astronomy and navigation. Used by Greek astronomers, then Arab astronomers until it was superseded by the sextant.
    • Historical Significance: An astrolabe allowed for merchants and others who were travelling to get to the right place. Since people knew where to go, it increased trade and therefore the economy. With the astrolabe it was easier and safer to travel.
  3. Ayllus
    Households in Andean societies that recognized some form of kinship; traced descent from some common, sometimes mythical ancestor

    Quechua-speaking clans (ayllus) in the southern Andean highlands around Cuzco fought for supremacy among other groups. The ayllus eventually gained control of the region and extended Inca control into Ecuador and Chile. The Inca Empire eventually grew to rule 9-13 million people.
  4. Caliph/Caliphate
    a spiritual leader of Islam, claiming succession from Muhammad

    HS-When Muhammad died he left no successor or way for a successor to be chosen to lead the people in faith so choosing someone to be the caliph was extremely important. The position was eventually given to one of his earliest followers and closest friends, Abu Bakr.
  5. Calpulli
    Definition-a kin group

    Historical significance- controlled the city wards of Tenochtitlan that maintained neighborhood temples and civic buildings.
  6. Champa Rice
    an early-ripening, drought-resistant rice

    Introduced to China from Champa (present-day southern and central Vietnam), this rice was hardy enough to be grown on higher land and terraces as well as quick-growing enough to be doubly harvested, allowing for more food production, which ultimately led to a population increase.
  7. Chinampas
    Definition- fertile, arable land in small rectangular areas to grow crops on shallow lake beds in Mexico, sometimes referred to as the "floating gardens"

    Chinampas exhibited the agricultural development of the ancient Aztec Indians. They kept crops in production all year.
  8. Cross-Culture Exchange
    ideas from one region go in to another region by trade, warfare, etc.

    The Silk Road is a significant example because merchants from the Middle East/Europe traded with the far east and brought back with them the ideas of paper, gunpowder, and silk.
  9. Crusades
    Definition: series of religious expeditions in which the Pope and the Catholic church tried to win the Holy Land from the Muslims.

    Historical significance: When the Crusades fought the Turks, they had a siege over Antioch that lasted 9 months. When the enemy refused to surrender, they attacked the Muslims, massacred them, and destroyed their Holy place (mosques).
  10. Cyrillic Writing/Alphabet
    also known as azbuka, a system of writing developed by the First Bulgarian Empire that was derived from Ancient Greek alphabets and other sources

    Significance- It was used in many languages in Eastern Europe and Asia, especcially in areas of Slavic origin, where it was used as the official language of the Slavic Church. It also became the ligua franca of Eastern Europe in the 12th century.
  11. Daimyos
    Definition- warlord rulers in Japan

    Historical significance- Daimyo was the new name for a warlord after Japan was dividedinto 300 little kingdoms.
  12. Dar Al-Islam
    This is an area with a predominately Muslim population. Dar al-Islam directly translates to house of Islam.

    With the rise of Islam in 622 AD, the religion spread to different areas around the world and became the religion of choice.
  13. Equal-fields system
    (n.) Chinese system of distribution as administered by the government to individuals. It was adopted in the 5th century CE, and continued through the Sui and Tang Dynasties.

    The system replaced earlier Han China systems, lessened the power of the aristocracy, and contributed to the centralization or the government.
  14. Feudalism
    Political system of Medieval Europe that lets peasants use the kings/lords land with their permission in exchange for services and other labors

    In the Middle Ages, when peasants were living on land that belonged to someone else
  15. Fief
    Definition: The land given to a vassal by a lord in exchange for knighthood and military service.

    Historical Significance: This was important because this created loyalty toward the lords on the part of the knights and vassals.
  16. Flying Money
    Definition: Chinese credit instrument that provided credit vouchers to merchants to be redeemed at the end of the voyage

    Historical Significance: Reduced the chance of robbery and shows the evolution of currency to paper money
  17. Foot Binding
    Definition- the act or practice of tightly binding the feet of infant girls to keep the feet as small as possible for the purpose of obtaining a husband.

    Historical significance- shows the general gap between men and women in China in the late Song period because foot binding caused pain for the rest of the girl’s lifeand limited her mobility but foot binding continued to be applied to young girls because it was believed that the husbands wanted their wives to have smaller feet.
  18. Griots
    Definition: a member of a hereditary caste among the people of western Africa whose function is to keep an oral history of the tribe or village and to entertain with stories, poems, songs, dances, etc.

    Historical Significance: These members kept oral histories rather than written histories because they had not developed a written language
  19. Guild
    Definition: a group craftsmen or merchants who shared a similar trade. The guild helped regulate how business should be done, and established rules which regulated a particular industry. The guilds allowed the craftsmen or merchants to control the price of their goods, and as a combined group, form a monopoly. This allowed them to artificially set the prices at any level they desired.

    Historical Significance: Largely practiced in small towns in Europe, and helped make decisions that affected the economic function of the town. created a monopoly on certain goods, and functioned somewhat like today's labor unions.
  20. Haji
    A Haji is an Arabic title that is given to a person who has completed the pilgrimage Hajj to Mecca.

    The Haji is historically significant because in 631 CE, Muhammad led his followers to perform the first Haji to Mecca, where he cleansed the Kaaba and ordained the building as one of God's. Then Haji became one of the five pillars of Islam.
  21. Harem
    A harem is the area in a usually polygynous (more than one wife) house where their quarters are, which are also forbidden to men. It is also usually related with a Muslim household. It can also refer to the wives of a man.

    A harem is historically significant because it played a huge role in history, specifically the Ottoman court. Some of these women were also very strong political powers, and shaped the Ottoman country.
  22. Hegemony
    Definition: A dominant group that has a higher authority over others and influences them politically, socially, culturally, or economically.

    Historical Significance: Islam became a hegemony after it had rapidly expanded its culture. When Muhammad had begun to conquer many cities, he forced his religion unto them. Before long, the Muslim had been the ruling authority and had a large influence on surrounding areas.
  23. Heresy
    Definition: a belief that contradicts with another religious doctrine.

    Historical significance: Due to the decline of the amount of control the Church had for the religion of Christianity, heresies flourished
  24. Hijrah
    The Hijrah is the journey Muhammad took with his followers from Mecca to Medina in 622 CE.

    The Hijrah is important because it was the first big diffusion of the religion Islam outside of Mecca. The people in Mecca were being persecuted for their beliefs, so Muhammad led them on this journey. It was an important part in developing Islam. It set a precedent for many Muslims to follow.
  25. Icons/Iconoclasm
    Iconoclasm is the ban or intentional destruction of religious items called icons, which can include any kind of totem or sculpture that represents a diety

    Significance- Two periods of Iconoclasm developed in the Byzantine Empire related to Islam, which created political and economic divisions.
  26. Inca Socialism
    system of the Inca civilization where every community of people was vital in contributing to the entire population

    The Inca with their careful organization, central planning, mandatory working times, and granaries resembled modern socialism; however, there still existed some aspects of the economy not under government control, such as the markets.
  27. Interregional
    Definition: Interaction between two or more regions.

    Historical Significance: One significant element about this time period was that interaction among many groups arose. This caused for the economy and trade to evolve. Cities sprang up where interaction occurred. This interaction led to more cultural diffusion and southernization.
  28. Junks
    Junks- Ancient Chinese boats made in the Han dynasty with a high stern and lugsails

    Historical Significance/Example- The Junks allowed the Chinese to trade much more efficiently in long-distance trading, and utilize the water around them for trading.
  29. Kowtow
    (叩头) (n.) the act of showing respect by kneeling until one's head touched the ground, indicating the acceptance of the superiority of another.

    Usually done for the emperor of China, the kowtowing was supported by the Confucian philosophy of order and respect.
  30. Magna Carta
    Definition: The English law written in 1215 that put laws in writing to assure that they were followed that included the rights of a person convicted of a crime, protection of private property, reasonable taxes, and religious freedom.

    Historical Significance: The Magna Carta was the first written law in England and it set an example for later laws that were written.
  31. Manorialism
    Definition: The system in which peasants in Europe were tied to their masters and their land because they were serfs.

    Historical Significance: In Europe, manorialism had given the sefs protection and ensured a job to them.
  32. Mita
    Labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities were expected to contribute

    Different communities were expected to take turns working on state and church lands, or in mines/ building projects. The mita were an essential aspect of Inca control, as they enabled local variations in the Inca Empire as opposed to the empire demanding tributes.
  33. Monsoons
    Monsoons- a prevailing, seasonally reversing wind which influences can influence climate or bring precipitation (In rainy seasons)

    Historical Significance/Example- The inhabitants of India created the Dhou Ships and Lanteen Sails in order to take advantage of the seasonal change of the monsoons.
  34. Mosques
    A mosque is a place of worship for people that practice Islam.

    Mosques are historically significant because they helped spread the religion of Islam. The first mosques were constructed in the Arabian Peninsula. In Egypt, hundreds of mosques were built during the seventh century CE, which helped the diffusion of Islam to other countries. Mosques are a place for the followers of Islam to practice their religion.
  35. Pogrom
    Pogrom: an organized massacre of helpless people or a particular ethnic group

    Historical Significance: In 19th century Russia there were big mob attacks on Jews; these attacks were encouraged by authority.
  36. Qadi
    An Islamic judge with absolute authority in jurisdiction.

    A famous Qadi was Ibn Battuta who, on his hajj (spiritual journey to Mecca), visited Islamic places around the world and wrote an account of his excursion, called Rihla.
  37. Quechua
    (n.) May refer to a region in Peru, the indigenous groups that live there, or the family of languages these groups speak.

    The Incas spoke the Quechua language, as did various Andean civilizations.
  38. Renaissance
    A time period (14th~17th century) in Europe where there was a rise ("rebirth") in learning, more specifically the arts and literature from ancient Roman/Greeks.

    Historical Significance: Artists learned to paint with linear perspective. Michaelangelo & Leonardo da Vinci made their art more realistic by studying the human body.
  39. Samurai
    Samurai- literally meaning "Those who serve" are Japanese warriors who can fight on horseback and use bows and crossbows as well as their curved swords; can also mean a member of the "Samurai class" itself;

    Historical Significance/Example: The Samurai at first were meant to protect wealthy land owners called Daimyos and their land, then eventually became a class in itself and developed a code which influenced not only men but also women.
  40. Scholasticism
    Scholasticism: Following methods, traditions, and teachings of a sect.

    Historical Significance: This system of theology and philosophy taught in European universities in medieval times, based on Aristotle's logic.
  41. Seppuku
    Japanese ritual suicide by disembowelment

    Samurai in Japan would mainly perform seppuku as a wartime practice to die with honor instead of being defeated by their enemies. They also used it as a form of capital punishment for very serious offenses.
  42. Serf
    Definition: a peasant required to serve a lord and is usually attached to the lord's land and transferred with it from one owner to another.

    Historical Significance: Guarenteed the lord a working class under his control, and guaranteed the serfs food.
  43. Shari'a
    Definition- the religious law of Islam (Islamic law)It derived from the Quran and the Sunna.

    The Shari'a isn't necessarily a formal code, but are practices used by Muslims. Because it came from the Quran and the Sunna, the beliefs are similar, such as no separation of church and state.
  44. Shari
    law, seen as deriving from the Koran

    HS- In Sudanic states these laws were mixed in with the regular customs and not always followed. For instance, they recognized the role of women and some were matrilineal while they were supposed to be patrilineal according to the Sharia
  45. Shoguns
    Definition: Military leaders of the bakufu

    Historical Significance: Shoguns were given an element of paranoia of spies due to Yoritomo's obsessive fear of being overthrown in China
  46. Sinification
    making Chinese in character or bringing under Chinese influence

    During the Tang and Song dynasties, China's power grew so great that it sinicized other civilizations around it, such as Vietnam, Korea, and Japan.
  47. Southernization
    Definition: Values,beliefs, and cultural aspects that originated in south Asia and Africa that spread throughout the Islamic Empire.

    Historical Significance: The main trading route was the Great Silk Road, so people would often culturally diffuse with China. However, in this time period the main trade route was in Indian Ocean. This led to South Asian and African cultural aspects to be implemented into the Islamic culture. This created even more cultural diffusion throughout the world.
  48. Split Inheritance
    Definition-Where allthe political power and titles go to the ruler’s successor while all hispalaces, wealth, land, and possessions remained in the hands of his maledescendent.

    Historical Significance- Was used inthe Incan society and created a self-perpetuating need for expansion because ofancestor worship and the high respect the Incans held their rulers in.
  49. Stateless Societies
    Definition: African society organized around kinship or other forms of obligation and lacking the concentration of political power and authority associated with states

    Historical Significance: More challenging to spread the society without states, less developed/centralized
  50. Sufis
    wandering mystics who sought a personal union with Allah

    HS: It was a reaction AGAINST the impersonal and abstract divinity that the ulama scholars argued was the true God of the Quran.
  51. Sultan
    Sultan – Arabic term meaning “victorious”; designation for Muslim rulers, esp. in the West

    For 300 years, a succession of dynasties comprising rulers of different descents ruled much of north and central India from the capital city of Delhi. The rulers called themselves the sultans of Delhi, literally translating to princes of the heartland.
  52. Transregional
    Any activity that covers a region - which may be within a single country or covering several.

    The Byzantine empire was transregional by crossing modern political divisions and traveling borders
  53. Uighur
    Uighur- People who speak the turkic language itself; the cultural people which live around the Xinjiang region

    Historical Significance/Example: Although Uighurs today are primarily Muslim, they weren't that way until the 15th century.
  54. Ulama
    a body of Islamic scholars who have jurisdiction over legal and social matters for the people of the Islam faith and community

    HS: Their arguments helped the sufis expand because they tried to see beyond the illusory existence of every day life. Ibn Battuta walked from his home to Mecca, making the sacred pilgrimage that would take him over 20 years to walk.
  55. Umma
    the Islamic community

    HS-The umma overpowered old tribal boundaries allowing land feuds dividing the people, to be removed and unite the people.

    The original followers of Muhammad

    HS: They transcended old tribal boundaries, and made a degree of political unity (the Ummayyad) that was never possible before Muhammad's time.
  56. Usury
    the act of lending money with a high interest rate

    Significance- The practice of usury was strongly discouraged by the Christian Church and was primarily practiced by other cultures such as the Jews. The high interest rate also drove many people to bankruptc, and made the lenders wealthy and to more gaps between the rich and the poor.
  57. Vassal
    Definition: Someone who is granted the use of land, in return for rendering homage, fealty, and usually military service or its equivalent to a lord under the feudal style of government.

    Historical Significance: Usually the knights were declared vassals, guarenteeing them a place to live, and guarenteeing the lord of the feudal system an army.
  58. Vernacular Languages
    Vernacular Languages: The ordinary language spoken by the majority of people in a specific area

    Historical Significance: In Europe "vernacular language" was used to contrast Latin from English, German, Spanish, and French.
  59. Vizier
    Definition- is the assistant of the figureheads, also a leader of the bureaucracy

    Viziers established the bureaucracy and helped stabilize the government.