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amnestic disorder where patients have retrograde and anterograde amnesia and tend to confabulate. Usually associated with malnutrition and alcoholism.
Think of Korsakoff as "Course-askoff" b/c pts will say, "of course I remember" even when they don't
Due to bilateral anterior temporal lobe damage. Symptoms are hyperoral, hypersexual and placid
Lesions are here
due to thiamine deficiency. lesions in the mammillary bodies, medial thalamic nuclei, periaqueductal gray, and pontine tegmentum.
Medial forebrain bundle
connects the Midbrain, Orbitofrontal region, septal area and hypothalamus which spell MOSH
spinal nerve Dorsal nerve rootlets
spinal nerve ventral rootlets
spinal nerves divide into rami after leaving the intervertebral foramen. the anterior rami supply:
muscles and skin of the anterolateral body and appendicular muscles and skin
posterior rami supply:
skin and muscles of the back.
free nerve endings:
pain and temperature
touch, pressure, vibration
two point discrimination
small toe, sole
Anterior Pituitary Hormones:
ACTH, FSH, GH, LH, prolactin, TSH
Posterior pituitary releases
oxytocin and vasopressin, produced in the hypothalamus
area of the cord most vulnerable to ischemia
where the lumbar cistern ends
where the conus medullaris terminates in adults
Where conus medullaris terminates in newborns
where the dorsal spinocerebellar tract arises
C8-L3 (Clarks column)
Sympathetic innervation of the eye
C8-T2 (ciliospinal center of budge)
Sympathetic innervation of the body
T1-L2 (intermediolateral cell column)
gives rise to the sacral outflow of the parasympathetic nervous system
S2-S4 (intermediolateral cell column)
blood supply to the cord:
anterior spinal artery (arises fro the vertebral arteries) supplies the anterior 2/3 of the cord.
radicular arteries arise from local arteries help supply the cord
great radicular artery of Adamkiewicz provides most of the blood supply to the lumbar and sacral cord
venous return from the cord enters epidural veins (Batson's plexus) which have no valves therefore allowing the spread of infection and cancer into the epidural space.
carries afferent information about movement of the ipsilateral upper extremity and rostral body to the cerebellum
dorsal spinocerebellar tract
carries unconscious proprioceptive information from the lower limbs and trunk
rostral spinocerebellar tract
carries unconscious proprioceptive information from the upper limbs and rostral body to the cerebellum
destruction of this nucelus of the thalamus causes amnesia
largest thalamic nucleus; involved in visual attention
"became the largest thalamic nucleus to attract visual attention)
sensory information from the limbs meets in this nucleus
VPL, it projects to the postcentral gyrus (Brodmanns 3,2,1)
neurohypophysis; organum vasculosum; subcommissural organ; pineal gland; area postrema; median eminence; subfornical organ
"NO SPAM about fornication"