A&P 2 Midterm complete.txt

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  1. The difference between nervous and Endocrine systems
    • Nervous systems has:
    • Faster response, briefer effects and acts on specific targets. Also has nerve impulses that trigger the release of nuerotransmitters.

    • Endocrine:
    • Slower response, effects that last longer, has broader influence. Has hormones released in only one part of the body, but regulates activity of cells in other parts.
  2. Exocrine glands vs endocrine glands
    Endocrine glands are ductless glands. Which means they secrete products into the interstitual fluid and diffuses into blood. example: pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenale and pineal glands. Hypothalamus, thymus, pancreas, ovaries, testes, kidnets, stomach, liver, small intestine, skin, heart, adipose tissue, and placenta not exclusively endocrine glands, rather contain cells that secrete hormones.

    Exocrine gland- ducted ie sweat, mucous or digestive glands
  3. functions of hormones
    • Help regulate:
    • -Chemical composition /volume of interstitial fluid
    • -metabolism/energy balance
    • -contraction of cardiac and smooth muscle
    • -glandular secreation
    • -some imune functions
    • Controls growth and development
    • Regulates operation of reproduction
    • help establish circadian rhythms
  4. Hormone activity: Down vs Up
    Down-regulation: means hormone presents in excess, the number of target cells may decrease

    Up-regulation: means hormone presents in deficiency, the number of target cells receptors may increase.
  5. Circulating vs Local hormones and different hormones under each class
    Circulating hormone-they circulate in the blood throughout the body.

    Local hormone- They act locally

    • -Paracrine-acts of neighboring cells
    • -Autocrine-acts on the same cells that secretes them.
  6. Chemical class of hormones and different hormones under each class
    • -Lipid soluable: Used to transport proteins.
    • -steroid
    • -thyroid
    • -Nitric Oxide
    • -Water Soluable: Circulates in "free" form.
    • -amine
    • -peptide/protein
    • -eicosanoid
  7. Major difference of action of lipid-soluble between water soluble hormone
    Lipid-soluble HormonesThe lipid-soluble hormones include steroid hormones, thyroidhormones, and nitric oxide.1. Steroid hormones are derived from cholesterol. Eachsteroid hormone is unique due to the presence of different chemicalgroups attached at various sites on the four rings at the coreof its structure. These small differences allow for a large diversityof functions.2. Two thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) are synthesized byattaching iodine to the amino acid tyrosine. The benzene ringof tyrosine plus the attached iodines make T3 and T4 very lipidsoluble.3. The gas nitric oxide (NO) is both a hormone and a neurotransmitter.Its synthesis is catalyzed by the enzyme nitric oxidesynthase.Water-soluble HormonesThe water-soluble hormones include amine hormones, peptideand protein hormones, and eicosanoid hormones.1. Amine hormones are synthesized by decarboxylating(removing a molecule of CO2) and otherwise modifying certainamino acids. They are called amines because they retain anamino group (9NH3). The catecholamines—epinephrine,norepinephrine, and dopamine—are synthesized by modifyingthe amino acid tyrosine. Histamine is synthesized from theamino acid histidine by mast cells and platelets. Serotonin andmelatonin are derived from tryptophan.2. Peptide hormones and protein hormones are amino acidpolymers. The smaller peptide hormones consist of chainsof 3 to 49 amino acids; the larger protein hormones include50 to 200 amino acids. Examples of peptide hormones areantidiuretic hormone and oxytocin; protein hormones includehuman growth hormone and insulin. Several of the proteinhormones, such as thyroid-stimulating hormone, haveattached carbohydrate groups and thus are glycoproteinhormones.3. The eicosanoid hormones (ı¯-KO¯ -sa-noid; eicos-  twentyforms; -oid  resembling) are derived from arachidonic acid,a 20-carbon fatty acid. The two major types of eicosanoids areprostaglandins and leukotrienes. The eicosanoids are importantlocal hormones, and they may act as circulating hormonesas well.
  8. Know the different effects of hormone interactions
    The responsiveness of a target cell to a hormone depends on(1) the hormone’s concentration, (2) the abundance of thetarget cell’s hormone receptors, and (3) influences exerted byother hormones. A target cell responds more vigorously whenthe level of a hormone rises or when it has more receptors(up-regulation). In addition, the actions of some hormones ontarget cells require a simultaneous or recent exposure to a secondhormone. In such cases, the second hormone is said to havea permissive effect.

    When the effect of two hormones acting together is greateror more extensive than the effect of each hormone actingalone, the two hormones are said to have a synergistic effect.

    When one hormone opposes the actions of another hormone,the two hormones are said to have antagonistic effects
  9. which substance can act as a second messenger
    Calcium ions and cGMP
  10. how is hormone secreation regulated
    hormones are regulated by Up and down regulation
  11. hormone transport protein
    Albumins Smallest and most numerous blood plasmaproteins; produced by liver. Function astransport proteins for several steroidhormones and for fatty acids.
  12. pituitary gland attaches hypothalamus through which structure
    Hypothalamohypophyseal tract
  13. Hormones of Anterior/Posterior pituitary
    • Anterior
    • -HGH-promotes growth
    • -Thyroid Stimulating Hormone- Stimules the thyroxine (T4)and Triiodothryronine (T3)
    • -FSH- Egg production and sperm production
    • -LH - production of progesterone in the ovaries and testosterone in the testes
    • -ATCH- Secretion of cortisol and aldosterone. Stimulates cells in the adrenal cortex that produces glucocorticoids

    • Posterior
    • -Oxytocin (OT) -stimulates contraction of the uterus during birth and expulsion of milk during lactation
    • -ADH Antidiurectic hormone or vasopressin - causes water retension by opening pores by in the collecting tubules. Decreases urine production by causing the kindeys to return more water to the blood.
    • Regulation of ADH
    • -dehydration : ADH release
    • -overhydration : ADH inhibited
  14. Thyriod gland and the functions of its hormones
    Thyroid gland-inferior to the larynx, two lobes connected by inshmus. Thyroid follicles produce thyroid hormones (T4 and T3). Parafollicular cells and "C" cells produce calcitonin.

    T3 and T4= thyroid homones responsible for our metabolic rate, synthese of protein, breakdown of fats, use of glucose for ATP production

    Calcintonin= responsible for building of bones and stops reabsorption of bone (lower blood levels of calcium)
  15. Parathyroid Gland and function of its hormone
    The parathyroid glands are embedded in the posterior surfaces ofthe lateral lobes of the thyroid gland. They consist of chief cellsand oxyphil cells.2. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates the homeostasis of calcium,magnesium, and phosphate ions by increasing blood calcium andmagnesium levels and decreasing blood phosphate levels. PTHsecretion is controlled by the level of calcium in the blood.
  16. Adrenal Gland
    Adrenal Glands (p. 665)1. The adrenal glands are located superior to the kidneys. Theyconsist of an outer adrenal cortex and inner adrenal medulla.2. The adrenal cortex is divided into a zona glomerulosa, a zonafasciculata, and a zona reticularis; the adrenal medulla consistsof chromaffin cells and large blood vessels.3. Cortical secretions include mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids,and androgens.4. Mineralocorticoids (mainly aldosterone) increase sodium andwater reabsorption and decrease potassium reabsorption. Secretionis controlled by the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone (RAA) pathwayand by K level in the blood.5. Glucocorticoids (mainly cortisol) promote protein breakdown,gluconeogenesis, and lipolysis; help resist stress; and serve asanti-inflammatory substances. Their secretion is controlled byACTH.6. Androgens secreted by the adrenal cortex stimulate growth ofaxillary and pubic hair, aid the prepubertal growth spurt, andcontribute to libido.7. The adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine(NE), which are released during stress and produce effects similarto sympathetic responses.
  17. pancreas
    The pancreas lies in the curve of the duodenum. It has bothendocrine and exocrine functions.2. The endocrine portion consists of pancreatic islets or islets ofLangerhans, made up of four types of cells: alpha, beta, delta, andF cells.3. Alpha cells secrete glucagon, beta cells secrete insulin, delta cellssecrete somatostatin, and F cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.4. Glucagon increases blood glucose level; insulin decreases bloodglucose level. Secretion of both hormones is controlled by thelevel of glucose in the blood.
  18. pineal
    Pineal Gland (p. 673)1. The pineal gland is attached to the roof of the third ventricle of thebrain. It consists of secretory cells called pinealocytes, neuroglia,and endings of sympathetic postganglionic axons.2. The pineal gland secretes melatonin, which contributes to settingthe body’s biological clock (controlled in the suprachiasmaticnucleus). During sleep, plasma levels of melatonin increase
  19. Thymus Function
    Thymus (p. 674)1. The thymus secretes several hormones related to immunity.2. Thymosin, thymic humoral factor (THF), thymic factor (TF), andthymopoietin promote the maturation of T cells.
  20. hormones contribute to stress responses
    The Stress Response (p. 675)1. Productive stress is termed eustress, and harmful stress is termeddistress.2. If stress is extreme, it triggers the stress response (general adaptationsyndrome), which occurs in three stages: the fight-or-flightresponse, resistance reaction, and exhaustion.3. The stimuli that produce the stress response are called stressors.Stressors include surgery, poisons, infections, fever, and strongemotional responses.4. The fight-or-flight response is initiated by nerve impulses from thehypothalamus to the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervoussystem and the adrenal medulla. This response rapidlyincreases circulation, promotes ATP production, and decreasesnonessential activities.5. The resistance reaction is initiated by releasing hormones secretedby the hypothalamus, most importantly CRH, TRH, and GHRH.Resistance reactions are longer lasting and accelerate breakdownreactions to provide ATP for counteracting stress.6. Exhaustion results from depletion of body resources during theresistance stage.STUDY OUTLINE 6857. Stress may trigger certain diseases by inhibiting the immune system.An important link between stress and immunity is interleukin-l, producedby macrophages; it stimulates secretion of ACTH.

    Cortisol- "Stress" hormone- turns proteins into blood sugar, has anti-inflammatory effect, mobilizes energy reserves for sustained emergency response.
  21. Pituitary gland disorders
    Pituitary Gland DisordersPituitary Dwarfism, Giantism, and AcromegalySeveral disorders of the anterior pituitary involve human growth hormone(hGH). Hyposecretion of hGH during the growth years slowsbone growth, and the epiphyseal plates close before normal height isreached. This condition is called pituitary dwarfism. Other organs ofthe body also fail to grow, and the body proportions are childlike.Treatment requires administration of hGH during childhood, before theepiphyseal plates close.Hypersecretion of hGH during childhood causes giantism, anabnormal increase in the length of long bones. The person grows tobe very tall, but body proportions are about normal. Figure 18.22ashows identical twins; one brother developed giantism due to a pituitarytumor. Hypersecretion of hGH during adulthood is calledacromegaly (ak-ro¯-MEG-a-le¯). Although hGH cannot produce furtherlengthening of the long bones because the epiphyseal plates are alreadyclosed, the bones of the hands, feet, cheeks, and jaws thickenand other tissues enlarge. In addition, the eyelids, lips, tongue, andnose enlarge, and the skin thickens and develops furrows, especiallyon the forehead and soles
  22. Thyroid Gland disorders
    Congenital hypothyroidism, hyposecretion of thyroid hormones that is present atbirth, has devastating consequences if not treated promptly.Previously termed cretinism, this condition causes severe mentalretardation and stunted bone growth. (Babies)

    Hypothyroidism during the adult years produces myxedema (mix-e-DE¯ -ma), which occurs about five times more often in females than inmales. A hallmark of this disorder is edema (accumulation of interstitialfluid) that causes the facial tissues to swell and look puffy. A personwith myxedema has a slow heart rate, low body temperature, sensitivityto cold, dry hair and skin, muscular weakness, generallethargy, and a tendency to gain weight easily. (adults)

    The most common form of hyperthyroidism is Graves’ disease,which also occurs seven to ten times more often in females than inmales, usually before age 40. Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disorderin which the person produces antibodies that mimic the action ofthyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).

    A goiter (GOY-ter; guttur  throat) is simply an enlarged thyroidgland.
  23. Glucocorticoid effects
    Hypersecretion of cortisol by the adrenal cortex produces Cushing’ssyndrome (Figure 18.22e). Causes include a tumor of the adrenal glandthat secretes cortisol, or a tumor elsewhere that secretes adrenocorticotropichormone (ACTH),

    Hyposecretion of glucocorticoids and aldosterone causes Addison’s disease(chronic adrenocortical insufficiency). The majority of cases are autoimmunedisorders in which antibodies cause adrenal cortexdestruction or block binding of ACTH to its receptors
  24. Functions of the Blood
    • Transportation
    • - O2, Co2, metabolic watse, nutrient, heat and harmones
    • Regulation
    • -helps regulate pH through buffers
    • -help regulate body temperature
    • -helps regulate water content of cells by interactions with dissolved ios anproteins
    • Protection from disease and loss of blood
  25. Physical Characteristics of the Blood
    • Thicker(more viscous) than water and flows more slowly than water
    • temperature of 38 degrees C (100.4 degree F); and a pH of7.35–7.45.5.
    • Blood constitutes about 8% of body weight, and its volume is4–6 liters in adults. (in males 5-6 liters, females 4-5 liters)
    • Blood is about 55% blood plasma and 45% formed elements.
  26. Definition of Hematocrit
    The hematocrit is the percentage of total blood volume occupied by red blood cells.
  27. Difference between Plasma proteins and their functions.
    Blood plasma consists of 91.5% water and 8.5% solutes. Principalsolutes include proteins (albumins, globulins, fibrinogen), nutrients,vitamins, hormones, respiratory gases, electrolytes, and wasteproducts.

    • Albumin - 54%
    • - maintian blood osmotic pressure
    • Gobulins - 38%
    • _ antibodies bind to foreing substances called antigens
    • _ form antigen-antibody complexes
    • Fibrinogen- 7%
    • _ for clotting
    • 1.5% Other substances - electrolytes, nutrients, harmones, gases, waste products.
  28. Different types of White Blood Cells and their functions.
    Unlike red blood cells, white blood cells or leukocytes (LOOko¯-sı¯ts; leuko-  white) have nuclei and do not contain hemoglobin (Figure 19.7). WBCs are classified as either granular or agranular, depending on whether they contain conspicuous chemical-filled cytoplasmic granules (vesicles) that are madevisible by staining when viewed through a light microscope.Granular leukocytes include neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils; agranular leukocytes include lymphocytes and monocytes. monocytes and granular leukocytes develop from a myeloid stem cell, and lymphocytes develop from a lymphoid stem cell.

    WBCs are nucleated cells. The two principal types are granulocytes(neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) and agranulocytes(lymphocytes and monocytes).2. The general function of WBCs is to combat inflammation and infection. Neutrophils and macrophages (which develop from monocytes) do so through phagocytosis.3. Eosinophils combat the effects of histamine in allergic reactions,phagocytize antigen–antibody complexes, and combat parasitic worms. Basophils liberate heparin, histamine, and serotonin inallergic reactions that intensify the inflammatory response.4. B lymphocytes, in response to the presence of foreign substance scalled antigens, differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibodies. Antibodies attach to the antigens and render them harmless. This antigen–antibody response combats infection and provides immunity. T lymphocytes destroy foreign invaders directly. Natural killer cells attack infectious microbes and tumor cells.5. Except for lymphocytes, which may live for years, WBCs usually live for only a few hours or a few days. Normal blood contains5000–10,000 WBCs/L.
  29. Function of Platelets
    • Platelets (thrombocytes) are disc-shaped cell fragments that splinter from megakaryocytes. Normal blood contains 150,000–400,000 platelets/L.
    • Platelets help stop blood loss from damaged blood vessels by forming a platelet plug.
  30. Anemia vs Polycythemia
    • Anemia - Not enough RBCs
    • Polycythemia - excess amount of RBCs
  31. What is Hemopoiesis
    Hemopoiesis - is the production of blood cells.
  32. Whta is EPO and its functions
    EPO(Erythropoietin) - produced by the kidneys - increase RBCs precursors.
  33. Transferrin vs Ferritin
    Transferrin is a plasma protein that transports iron in the blood.

    In muscle fibers, liver cells, and macrophages of the spleenand liver, Fe3 detaches from transferrin and attaches to aniron-storage protein called ferritin
  34. Functions of Neutrophil, Eosinophil and monocyte
    The general function of WBCs is to combat inflammation and infection. Neutrophils and macrophages (which develop from monocytes) do so through phagocytosis.3. Eosinophils combat the effects of histamine in allergic reactions, phagocytize antigen–antibody complexes, and combat parasitic worms. Basophils liberate heparin, histamine, and serotonin inallergic reactions that intensify the inflammatory response. Monocytes are phagocytosis (after transforming into fixed or wandering macrophages). Functions: takes longer to get to site of infection, but arrive in larger numbers. Destroy microbes and cleans up dead tissues following infection.
  35. Which methods provide hemostasis?
    vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, blood clotting (coagulation-formation of fibrin threads)
  36. heparin
    Heparin, an anticoagulant that is produced by mast cells and basophils, combines with antithrombin and increases its effectiveness in blocking thrombin.
  37. Which cell will develop into platelets?
  38. Blood type and Antigen
    • A-A antigen
    • B-B antingen
    • AB-AB antigen
    • O- neither
  39. recticulocyte
    An immature redblood cell.
  40. When ____ is formed the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of clotting are identical?
    "prothrombinase" - is formed by either the intrinsic or extrinsic pathway.
  41. Factor XIII has the most to do with strengtheing and stabilizing blood clot.
    Positive feedback
  42. Vitamin K and clotting factors.
    • Normal clotting requires adequate vitamin K
    • -fat soluble vitamin absorbed if lipids are present
    • -absorption slowed if bile release is insufficient
    • Required of systhesis of 4 clotting factors by hepatocytes
    • -factors II (prothrombin), VII, IX and X
    • Produced by bacteria in Large Instestine.
  43. The Heart Orientation and its structures
    • The heart has:
    • -An Apex - directed anteriorly, inferiorly and to the left
    • - A Base - directed posteriorly, superiorly and to the right
    • -2 surfaces and 2 borders
    • _Surfaces - Anterior (deep in the sternum) and Inferior (rest on the disphragm)
    • _Borders - Left (faces the Pulmonary border/left lung)and Right (faces the right lung)
  44. The different Sulci and thier locations.
    Sulci - are the grooves on the surface of the heart containing coronary blood vessels and fat.

    Coronary Sulcus - encircles the heart and marks the boundary between atrium and the ventricles.

    Anterior Interventricular Sulcus - marks the boundary between the ventricles anteriorly.

    Posterior Interventricular Sulcus - marks the boundary between the ventricles posteriorly.
  45. The type of tissue comprises the valves of the heart.
    • Epicardium - visceral layer of serous pericardium
    • Myocardium - cardiac muscle layer is the bulk of the heart.
    • Endocardium - chamber lining and valves
  46. The valves that are in and out of heart.
    IN - Tricuspid Valve - (blood flows through into right ventricle) & Bicuspid Valve - (blood flows through into the left ventricle)

    OUT - Pulmonary Valve - (blood flows into pulmonary trunk) & Aortic Semilunar Valve - (blood passes through valve into the ascending aorta.)
  47. Know 2 blood circulations especially the viens or arteries carrying the oxygenated or deoxygenated blood.
    Systematic Circulation - left side of the heart pumps blood through the body. The left ventricle pump oxygenated blood into the aorta. The left side of the heart pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic circulation to all tissues of the body except the airsacs (alveoli) of the lungs.

    • Pulmonary Circulation -
    • The right side of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood into the pulmonary circulation to the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs.
  48. The self blood supply system of the heart.
    The Coronary circulation is the blood supply to the heart.
  49. The muscle contains the largesr amount of mitchondria.
    The Cardiac Muscles
  50. The conduction system of heart.
    Autorhythmic Cells -cells fire spontaneously and form conduction system for the heart.

    Sinoatrial (SA) Node - cluster of cells in the right artria, excitation spreads to AV node.

    Atrioventricular (AV) Node - in atrial septum, transmits signal to bundle of His

    AV bundle of His - the connection between atria and ventricles; divides into right/left bundle branches & purkinje fibers, large diameter of fibers that conduct signals quickly.
  51. The waves of EKG or ECG.
    EKG - action potentials of all active cells can be detected and recorded.

    • P wave - atrial depolarization
    • QRS waves - ventricular depolarization
    • T wave - ventricular repolarization
  52. How 1st and 2nd heart sounds are created?
    LUBB - the 1st heart sound is created with the closing of the atrioventricular valves

    DUPP - the 2nd heart sound is created with the closing of semilunar valves
  53. Cardiac output is determined by which 2 factors?
    Cardiac Output = Stroke Volume x Heart Rate
  54. Factors that affect the heart rate?
    • _ Epinephrine, norepinephrine, thyroid harmones
    • _ Ions (Na+, K+, Ca2+)
    • _ Age, gender, physical fitness and temperature
  55. Which part of the brain part regulates heart rate?
    Nervous control from the cardoivascular center in the medulla.

    • _ Sympathetic impulses increase heart rate and force contraction
    • _ Parasympathetic impulses decrease the heart rate
  56. Know which blood vessels carry away (to tissue organs) or bring back blood to heart.
    • Arteries carry blood "away" from the heart to tissues.
    • - elastic arteries (large size)
    • - muscular arteries (medium size)
    • - arterioles (smaller size)

    Venues merge to form veins that bring blood "back" to the heart.
  57. Know the different layers of structure of the arteries and their function
    • •Tunica interna (intima):
    • -simple squamous epithelium known as endothelium
    • -basement membrane
    • -internal elastic lamina

    • •Tunica media:
    • -circular smooth muscle and elastic fibers

    • •Tunica externa:
    • -elastic & collagen fibers

    • •Elastic Arteries: help propel blood onward despite ventricular relaxation (stretch and recoil--pressure reservoir)

    • •Muscular Arteries: capable of Breyer vasoconstriction and vasodilation to adjust rate flow.
    • -called distributing arteries because they direct blood flow.

    • •Arterioles: Metarterioles form branches into capillary bed.
    • - to bypass capillary bed, precapillary sphincters close and blood flows out of bed in thoroughfare channel.
  58. Know different sizes of arteries from the largest to smallest then change into smallest veins to large size of vein.
    •Elastic Arteries: largest-diameter arteries that have lot of elastic fibers in tunica media

    •Muscular arteries: medium sized arteries with more muscle than elastic fibers in tunica media.

    • •Arterioles: small arteries delivering blood to capillaries
    • -tunica media containing few layers of muscle.
  59. The structure difference between arteries and veins.
    • •Arteries: transport oxygenated blood from the heart.
    • -thick muscular wall
    • -much elastic tissue
    • -small lumen relative to diameter
    • -not permeable
    • -valves in pulmonary artery and Aorta only
    • -blood under high pressure (10-16kPa)
    • -blood moves in pulses
    • -blood flows rapidly

    • •Veins: transport deoxygenated blood back to the heart.
    • -thin muscular wall
    • -Little elastic tissue
    • -large lumen relative to diameter
    • -not capable of constriction
    • -not permeable
    • -valves throughout all veins
    • -blood under low pressure (1kPa)
    • -no pulses
    • -blood flows slowly
  60. Know the most important method of capillary exchange
    • •Diffusion (most important method)
    • -substances move down concentration gradient
    • -all plasma dilutes except large proteins pass freely across
  61. Which structure controls the flow of blood through a capillary bed?
    Precaipllary sphincters close and blood flows out of bed in thoroughfare channel
  62. Know anastomoses
    Aka: Collateral circulation (alternate route of blood flow)

    • •Union of 2 or more arteries supplying the same body region.
    • -blockage of only one pathway has no effect
    • •circle of Willis underneath brain
    • •coronary circulation of heart
  63. Blood flow depends on what criteria?
    Blood Pressure and vascular pressure
  64. What is filtration?
    • Is movement of material into interstitial fluid.
    • -promoted by blood hydrostatic pressure & interstitial fluid osmotic pressure.
  65. Which vessel is aka distributing arteries? And which vessel is aka exchanging vessel.
    •Muscular arteries called "distributing arteries" because they direct blood flow.

    And the exchanging are the Capillaries.
  66. What is the largest factor that promotes reabsorption of fluids, into blood, from the interstitial fluids?
    • reabsoption is movement from interstitial fluid into capillaries
    • -promoted by blood colloid osmotic pressure
  67. What is blood viscosity?
    • Blood viscosity (thickness)
    • •ratio of red blood cells to plasma volume
    • •increases in viscosity increase resistance
    • -dehydration or polycythemia
  68. Which hormones regulate blood pressure?
    • 1.Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.
    • -decrease in blood pressure or decreased blood flow to kidney
    • -release of renin/results in formation agiotensin II
    • •systemic vasoconstriction
    • •causes release aldosterone (H2O & Na+reabsorption)

    • 2.Epinephrine & norepinephrine
    • •increases heart rate and force of contraction
    • •causes vasoconstriction in skin & abdominal organs
    • •vasodilation in cardiac & skeletal muscle.

    3. ADH causes vasoconstriction

    • 4. ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide) lowers blood pressure
    • -causes vasodilation & OSS of salt and water in the urine.
  69. Know chemoreceptor reflexes.
    • •Carotid bodies and aortic bodies.
    • -detect changes in blood levels of O2, CO2, and H+ (hypoxia, hypercapnia or acidosis)
    • -causes stimulation of cardiovascular center
    • -increases sympathetic stimulation to Arterioles & veins.
    • -vasoconstriction and increase in blood pressure

    •Also changes breathing rates as well.
  70. Know the chemical substance can be the vasodilators.
    • ANP (atrial natriurectic peptide) lowers BP
    • -causes vasodilation and loss of salt and water in the urine
    • Epinephrine and Noepinephrine
  71. Know different types of shock and the cause.
    • •Hypovolemic shock due to loss of blood or body fluids (hemorrhage, sweating, diarrhea)
    • -venous return to heart declines & output decreases

    •Cardiogenic shock caused by damage to pumping action of the heart (MI, ischemia, valve problems or arrhythmias)

    •Vascular shock causing drop inappropriate vasodilation--anaphylactic shock, septic shock or neurogenic shock (head trauma)

    •Obstructive shock caused by blockage of circulation (pulmonary embolism)
  72. Where do all the veins of the systemic circulation drain into?
    All systemic veins drain into the superior or inferior vena cava or coronary sinus to return to the right side of heart
  73. Which vein do the blood from the head and neck drain to?
    External and Internal jugular veins drain the head and neck into the superior vena cava
  74. Know which vein drain to right atrium of the heart
    • •All empty into the right atrium of the heart:
    • -superior vena cava drains the head and upper extremities.
    • -inferior vena cava drains the abdomen, pelvis and lower limbs
    • -coronary sinus is large vein draining the heart muscle back into the heart.
  75. What is pulse pressure?
    • •Pulse is a pressure wave
    • -alternate expansion & recoil of elastic artery after each systole of the left ventricle
    • -pulse rate is normally between 70-80 beats/min
    • •tachycardia is rate over 100 beats/min/bradycardia under 60.
  76. Which is the largest artery of the body?
    Aorta is the largest artery of the body
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A&P 2 Midterm complete.txt
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