Exam 1

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Exam 1
2012-02-21 10:25:03

Dev Psych
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  1. norm of reaction
    the concept that refers to all of the possible phenotypes that could result from a particular genotype in relation to all possible environments

    describes the pattern of phenotypic expression of a single genotype across a range of environments; For every genotype, phenotypic trait, and environmental variable, a different norm of reaction can exist; (concept introduced by Woltereck)
  2. Heritability of a population:
    the proportion of observable differences between individuals due to genetic differences; Heritability thus analyzes the relative contributions of differences in genetic and non-genetic factors to the total phenotypic variance in a population; measures the fraction of phenotype variability that can be attributed to genetic variation; can change without any genetic change occurring; heritability increases because genetics are contributing more variation, or because non-genetic factors contribute less variation; it's specific to a particular population in a particular environment
  3. neurogenesis
    birth of neurons; process by which neurons are generated from neural stem and progenitor cells; most active during pre-natal development; responsible for populating the growing brain with neurons; happens in hippocampus and the subventricular zone in adults POS
  4. neuron
  5. lobes of the brain
  6. frontal lobe
    contains most of the dopamine-sensitive neurons in the cerebral cortex; dopamine system is associated with reward, attention, short-term memory tasks, planning, and motivation
  7. parietal lobe
    integrates sensory information from different modalities, particularly determining spatial sense and navigation; it comprises somatosensory cortex and the dorsal stream of the visual system; enables the mapping of objects perceived visually into body coordinate positions
  8. temporal lobe
    involved in auditory perception and is home to the primary auditory cortex; also important for the processing of speech and vision; it contains the hippocampus and plays a key role in the formation of long-term memory
  9. myelination
    the production of the myelin sheath; production of myelin begins in the fourteenth week of fetal development, although little myelin exists in the brain at the time of birth. During infancy, myelination occurs quickly and continues through the adolescent stages of life; myelin is a dielectric (electrically insulating) material that forms a layer, the myelin sheath, around the axon of a neuron; it's an outgrowth of a type of glial cell
  10. synaptogenesis
    the formation of synapses; an explosion of synapse formation occurs during early brain development; important during an individual's "critical period" of life, during which there is a certain degree of neuronal pruning due to competition for neural growth factors by neurons and synapses; processes that are not used, or inhibited during this critical period will fail to develop normally later on in life
  11. synapse elimination
    an activity-dependent process that involves competition between axons; Hypothetically, a synapse strong enough to produce an action potential will trigger the myonuclei directly across from the axon to release synaptotrophins that will strengthen and maintain well-established synapses; this synaptic strengthening is not conferred upon the weaker synapses, thereby starving them out
  12. experience-expectant processes
    involves the strong effect of specific experiences during limited sensitive periods of development; ex. the coordinated use of the two eyes, and the experience of a single three-dimensional image rather than the two-dimensional images created by light in each eye, depend on experiences with vision during the second half of the first year of life; works to fine-tune aspects of development that cannot proceed to optimum outcomes as a result of genetic factors working alone
  13. experience-dependent plasticity
    behavior is altered as a result of learning from the environment; this can occur throughout the lifespan and may involve many kinds of behavior, including some emotional reactions
  14. multifactorial
    the involvement of many factors, such as genetic and environmental factoris, in an outcome
  15. behavior genetics
    area of psychology concerned with how variations in behavior results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors
  16. chromosomes
    LONG, threadlike molecules made up to two twisted strands of genetic material
  17. DNA
    molecules that carry the biochemical instructions involved in the formation and funcitoning of an organism
  18. plasticity
    ex. the strengthening of some synapses and the elimination of others that occurs as a result of experience
  19. synapses
    neurons' electrical impulses are translated into chemical messages in THESE
  20. amniotic sac
    the membrane that is filled with a clear, watery fluid in which the fetus floats; it containts the fluid that cushions the developing organism from jolts
  21. FASD (fetal alcohol spectrum disorder)
    the range of effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol; symptoms of the most dramatic form of this include facial deformities, mental retardation, and organ defects
  22. dose-response relation
    the fact that hte likelihood and severity of a prenatal defect occurring as a result of teratogen exposure is associated with the level of exposure to the teratogen; the amount and length of exposure to ptentially harmful environmental agents is crucial in determining the effect of exposure

    the change in effect on an organism caused by differing levels of exposure (or doses) to a stressor (usually a chemical) after a certain time
  23. fetus
    the developing organism from the 9th week until birth
  24. low birth weight
    a birth weight less than 5.5 lbs; babies with this are more likely to suffer from hearing, language and cognitive impairments, as well as a variety of social problems
  25. umbilical cord
    the utbe that contains the blood vessels running between the mother and the fetus; it runs between the placenta and the fetus
  26. embryo
    a developing organism in its 3rd to 8th week of prenatal development; the inner cell mass differentiates into three layers during this embryogenesis
  27. SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome)
    the unexpected death of an infant that has no identifiable cause; the risk of this is decreased by putting babies to sleep on their backs
  28. premature
    a child born at or before 35 weeks following conception; ex. a baby born at 34 weeks following conception who weighs 6.5 lbs
  29. small for gestational age
    babies that weigh substantially less than normal for their gestational age; ex. a baby both full-term who weights less than is normal (also considered to be of low birth weight)
  30. placenta
    the organ rich with blood vessels that permits the exchange of materials between the bloodstreams of the mother and fetus; allows oxygen, nutrients and minerals to pass from the mother to the developing organism, but DOES NOT allow their blood to mix

    organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply
  31. sensitive period
    the period of time during which a developing organism is most at risk for harm from outside agents; ex. as a result of sensitive periods, only babies who were exposed to thalidomide while the limbs were emerging and developing wer born with major limb deformaties
  32. zygote
    the fertalized egg; cell division begins during THIS period of prenatal development
  33. conception
    the union of a sperm and egg; it results in a zygote
  34. identical twins
    monozygotic; simblings that results when the zygote splits in half to form 2 embryos; individuals with the exact same genetic makeup
  35. fraternal twins
    dizygotic; they develop when two separate eggs released in the fallopian tube at hte same time are fertilized by two separate sperm; they share half of their genetic material
  36. state
    an infant's level of arousal and engagement in the environment; an infants state affects their experience of the world, and can range from deep sleep to intense activity
  37. phylogenetic continuity
    the notion that humans share some characteristics and developmental processes with other animals as a result of our common evolutionary history; why we can do research on mice and apply it to humans
  38. non-REM sleep
    a quiet or deep sleep characterized by the absence of motor activity or eye movement, slow brain waves, breathing and heart rate
  39. habituation
    form of learning that involves a decrease in response to repeated stimulation; this is one of the simplest forms of learning and was demonstrated when fetuses were repeatedly presented with a recording of the sound "babi"
  40. developmental resilience
    successful development occurs despite multiple developmental hazards; children who demontrate this often have a responsive caregiver and personal characteristics such as intelligence and sense of being capabale of achieving their goals
  41. cephalocaudal development
    the pattern of growth in which areas near the head develop earlier than areas father away from the head; this pattern explains why the hands develop before the feet
  42. epigenesis
    the emergence of new structures and functions during development; rejection of the idea of preformation
  43. autostimulation theory
    the notion that brain activity during REM sleep facilitates the early development of the visual system in the fetus and newborn; support for this is demonstrated by giving newborns extra visual stimulation while they were awake

    if given a lot of stimulation when awake, babies will spend less time in REM sleep; therefore REM sleep may simply be an attempt to provide stimulation
  44. embryology
    the study of prenatal development; the study of phsyical and behavioral development in the womb
  45. REM
    an active sleep state characterized by quick, jerky eye movements; this may help make up for hte little visual stimulation experienced by fetuses/newborns
  46. fetal programming
    the later emergence of effects of prenatal experience; an example = finding that prenatal malnourishment can lead to increased risk of obiesity later in life
  47. Minamata disease
    a neurological syndrome caused by severe mercury poisoning; Symptoms include ataxia, numbness in the hands and feet, general muscle weakness, narrowing of the field of vision and damage to hearing and speech
  48. interrater reliability
    the degree to which different observers of the same behavior agree
  49. varibles
    attributes that cary across individuals and situations; ex. socioeconomic status, marriage, etc
  50. third-varible problem
    the notion that a correlation between two varibale could result from both variables being influenced by another, unspecified variable
  51. internal validity
    the degree to which the effects observed in experiments can be attributed to the variables that the researcher intentionally manipulated; ex. social skills training and time in children
  52. external validity
    the degree to which the results of research can be generalized beyond the particular children and methods used in the study;
  53. test-retest reliability
    the degree to which a child's performance on two or more occassions is similar
  54. validity
    the degree to which a test measures what it intends to measure
  55. reliability
    the degree to which independent measures of a behavior are consistant
  56. naturalistic experiments
    data is collected in an everyday setting; have greater external validity than lab experiments
  57. clinical interview
    procedue in which the questions are modified depending on the participant's responses; deviating from the script; probing
  58. discontinuous development
    notion that changes wiht age occur in sudden, large shifts; stage theories
  59. structured interview
    research method in which all participants are asked the same questions
  60. microgenetic design
    same children are studied repeatedly over a short (micro) period of time; method is designed to provide an in-depth depiction of the processes that involve change
  61. stage theories
    approaches to development that propose development occurs in a series of distinct age-related steps
  62. cross-sectional design
    children of different ages are compared on one behavior or characteristic
  63. structured observation
    examination of children's behaviors in an environment where all participants are presented with identical situations