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2012-03-01 11:45:18
how cells release energy cellular respiration obtaining from food Cellular reproduction sexual

Chapters 6,7,8
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  1. Sugar molecule =
    $10 bill
  2. ATP =
  3. Glucose =
    contains more ATP
  4. Aerobic metabolism is
    with oxygen
  5. Anaerobic metabolism is
    without oxygen
  6. We can contribute all of our energy to
    the sun
  7. All chemical reactions release
  8. Autotrophs
    self feeders
  9. Heterotrophs
    other feeders
  10. Plants and other autotrophs are the ____ in an ecosystem
  11. Heterotrophs are the ____, because they eat plants or other animals
  12. What are the ingredients for photosynthesis
    carbon dioxide and water
  13. Where does carbon dioxide CO2 come from
    plants leaves
  14. Where does water H2O come from
    damp soil by a plants roots
  15. What rearranges the atoms of the ingridients for photosynthesis to produce sugars (glucose) and other organic molecules
  16. Chloroplasts rearrange the atoms of the ingredients for photosynthesis to produce:
    sugars (glucose) and other organic molecules
  17. What is a by-product of photosynthesis
    Oxygen gas
  18. What is creaded during the process of photosynthesis
    sugars and oxygen
  19. What is released during the process of photosynthesis
    water, carbon dioxide, and ATP
  20. A chemical process that harvests energy from organic molecules
    Cellular Respiration
  21. What are the waste products of cellular respiration
    CO2 and H2O
  22. The waste products of cellular respiration are used during which process
  23. Cellular respiration is a ____ process
  24. Why is Cellular respiration an aerobic process
    because it requires oxygen
  25. Cellular respiration is the main way that chemical energy is ____ from chemical fuel
  26. During cellular respiration ___ is completely broken down into _____ molecules
    • glucose
    • inorganic
  27. During fermentation ____ is _____ broken down
    • glucose
    • incompletely
  28. requires a cell to exchange gases with its surroundings
    cellular respiration
  29. What is a common fuel molecule for cellular respiration
  30. What goes into cellular respiration
    glucose and oxygen
  31. What are the products of cellular respiration
    carbon dioxide, water, and ATP
  32. Chemical reactions that transfer electrons from one substance to another are called
    redox reactions
  33. The loss of electrons during a redox reaction is called
  34. The acceptance of electrons during a redox reaction is called
  35. Glucose is ____ during redox reactions
  36. Oxygen is ____ during redox reactions
  37. During redox reactions if one _____ electrons another _____ them
    • oxidizes (loses)
    • reduces (gains)
  38. The final electron exceptor molecule that receives electrons is
  39. How does NAD+ plus another electron become NADH during cellular respiration?
    By oxidating a substance
  40. What is the most important electron carrier
  41. Cellular respirations three main stages are:
    • glycolysis
    • the citric acid cycle (kreb cycle)
    • Electron transport
  42. What stage of cellular repsiration takes place in the cytoplasm
  43. What does glycolysis start with
  44. Does glycolysis require oxygen?
  45. Does glycolysis need energy?
    Yes - 2 ATP
  46. What does glycolysis do?
    suggar splitting
  47. What is the net gain of ATP during glycolysis?
  48. What is the total ATP in glycolysis?
  49. What does glycolysis end with
    2 pyruvic acid
  50. The transisition (aka - transition step) from glycolysis to the Kreb's cycle is known as
  51. During Fermentation:
    The pyruvic acid produced in glycolysis enters the ______, combines with a substance called_____, and it is the _____ that enters the Krebs Cycle.
    • mitochondria
    • coenzyme A
    • aceytol CoA
  52. What does the citric acid cycle (kreb cycle) start with
    Aceytol CoA
  53. Does the Kreb's cycle require oxygen
  54. This specific stage in cellular respiration does not use oxygen directly.
    Krebs cycle
  55. In the Krebs Cycle:
    There are ___ molecules of aceytol CoA, so there are ____ turns of the cycle.
    • 2
    • 2
  56. What are the products of the Krebs Cycle?
    2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, CO2
  57. What does the citric acid cycle (kreb cycle) end with
  58. What stage of cellular respiration takes place in the inner compartment (matrix) of the mitochondria
    The citric cycle (kreb cycle)
  59. What stage releases most of the energy your cells need to make most of their ATP
    electron transport
  60. What stage of cellular respiration takes place in the inner mitochondria
    electron transport
  61. During electron transport:
    The electron carriers, ____ and _____ donate electrons and H+ to the ETC (electron transport chain)
    • NADH
    • FADH2
  62. Final electron acceptor in Electron transport is?
  63. During electron transport:
    A special enzyme called _____ puts a third ____ onto ATP making _____
    • ATP synthase
    • phosphate
    • ATP
  64. What are the products of electron transport?
    6 H2O and 32 ATP
  65. During cellular respiration we break down ___ glucose and get ___ ATP
    • 1
    • 36
  66. What part of cellular respiration is the only part that uses oxygen directly?
    electron transport
  67. During what process do we not move past glycolysis?
    anaerobic respiration
  68. What is considered an anaerobic harvest of food energy?
  69. _____ is not as efficient as respiration
  70. Muscle cells begin to generate ATP by the process of ____ after functioning ____ for about 15 minutes
    • fermentation
    • anaerobically
  71. What process relies on glycolysis to produce ATP
  72. The study of physical inheritance among living things.
  73. Concers the storage, transfer, and use of information in DNA
  74. is the complete collection of an organisms genetic information
  75. Passes traits on between generations through transmissions from parents to offspring
  76. Genes contain information for the production of ____
  77. Information-bearing building blocks of genes are the chemical units called
    • bases
    • ATCG
  78. The building blocks of proteins are called
    amino acids
  79. Taking DNA from parent cell and splitting and dividing into 2 daughter cells
    nuclear division
  80. Two types of nuclear division
    • Mitosis
    • Meiosis
  81. splitting cells - splitting the cytoplasm into 2 cells during either mitosis or meiosis
    cytoplasmic division
  82. Type of nuclear division in somatic cells
  83. Type of nuclear division that is the basis for growth and development
  84. Type of nuclear division that replaces the cells we lose
  85. Somatic =
    body cells
  86. Type of nuclear divison in germ cells
  87. germ =
  88. Type of nuclear division that produces or gives rise to gametes (ovum and sperm)
  89. Type of nuclear division that is the basis for sexual reproduction
  90. a gene carrying structure found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell and most visible during mitosis and meiosis. Consist of chromatin and can be seen undera microscope
  91. threadlike material - the combination of DNA and proteins that constitute chromosomes. Present in cells that are not currently dividing. Cannot see under a microscope
  92. one of the two identical strands of chromatin that make up a chromosome in its duplicated state
  93. Same in size and function. Contain genes for the same kinds of protein products (one from a mother and one from a father).
    mom - eyes - brown
    dad - eyes - blue
    Homologous chromosomes
  94. non-sex chromosomes
  95. Females have ____pairs of homologous chromosomes, including two ___ chromosomes
    • 23
    • X
  96. Males have ___ pairs of homologous chromosomes, one ___ chromosome and one ___ chromosome
    • 22
    • x
    • y
  97. Pictorial arrangement of a full set of human chromosomes
  98. The seperation of a cell's duplicated chromosomes prior to cytokinesis
  99. The physical seperation of one cell into two daughter cells
  100. During which phase of the cell cycle is there no cell division
  101. During what phase of interphase is DNA replicate
    S phase
  102. What are the stages of the cell cycle in order?
    Mitosis, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, (PMAT)
  103. Which stage of the cell cycle begins and ends with interphase
  104. Which stage of the cell cycle is followed by prophase?
  105. During which stage of the cell cycle does chromatin become chromatids?
  106. During which stage of the cell cycle are the chromosomes plain to see?
  107. Signals the beginning of Mitosis
  108. The stage of the cell cycle where chromatin condense into visible duplicated chromosomes packed into a definite form.
  109. The stage of cell cycle where the nuclear envelope begins to break up
  110. The stage of cell cycle where centrosomes duplicate and begin to move toward cellular poles
  111. The stage of the cell cycle where chromosomes meet in the middle
  112. the stage of the cell cycle where the nuclear envelope has disappeared completely
  113. The stage of the cell cycle where microtubules attach to chromosomes and the duplicated chromosomes are aligned at the equator
  114. The microtubules active in cell division are known as the
    mitotic spindle
  115. The stage of cell cycle that comes after metaphase is:
  116. Stage of the cell cycle where the spindle fibers contract and each duplicated chromosome will be split in 1/2; sister chromatids separate and move towards poles of cells as chromosmes
  117. Anaphase is considered over when
    chromosomes reach poles
  118. stage of the cell cycle also known as parting of sisters
  119. Stage of cell cycle known as the exit for mitosis
  120. Stage of cell cycle known for "two nuclei"
  121. stage of cell cycle where the nuclear envelopes are reforming
  122. Stage of cell cycle signaling that mitosis is over
  123. During telophase a nucleus forms and ____ takes place
  124. If you can see chromosomes then you know a cell has
    begun cell division
  125. When microfilaments contract during cytokinesis they form ____ _____.
    clevage furrows
  126. During cytokinesis as the ______ ______ continues to pinch in, one cell becomes two
    contractile ring
  127. Where does food come from in the first place?
  128. Three pathways that generate ATP from food
    Aerobic cellular respiration, anaerobic celluar respriation and fermentation
  129. What type of respiration do plants use?
  130. Respiration in an _____ ______ reaction
  131. The pathways of aerobic respiration ____ glucose and _____ oxygen
    • oxidize
    • reduce
  132. The cell can not release all of its potential energy stored in glucoses chemical bond all at once because
    it would destroy the cell
  133. Three main pathways of cellular respiration
    glycolysis, krebs cycle, and electron transport
  134. Two high energy electron carrier molecules involved in cellular respiration
    NADH and FADH2
  135. Which enzyme associated with the electron transport chain is involved in the creation of ATP
    ATP synthase
  136. Does glycolysis occur in the presence of oxygen
  137. Does glycolysis occur in the absence of oxygen
  138. What is the initial reactant of glycolysis
  139. Is ATP used during the process of glycolysis
    yes 2 ATp
  140. What electron carrier is generated during glycolysis?
    2 ATP
  141. What method is used to produce ATP during glycolysis
    susbtrate level phosphorylation
  142. Which gaseous molecule is released by the Krebs cycle
  143. How many times does the Krebs cycle turn per moleucle of glucose
  144. What happens to the energy stored in the electron carriers NADH and FADH2
    they use it to establish a proton gradient across the inner mitochondria membrane
  145. As electrons are passed from one protein to another in the electron transport chain, some of the energy is used to pump ____ ions from the matrix to the inner membrane compartment
  146. The hydrogen ion gradient created by the electron transport chain represents a form of ____ energy
  147. In ___________ _________ protons move down their gradient through ______ ______ channels and ADP is phosphorylated into _____
    • chemiosmotic phosphorylation
    • ATP synthase enzyme
    • ATP
  148. What contributes calories to the diet
    • starch
    • proteins
    • lipids
  149. enzymes hydrolyze into amino acids; Ammonia is removed from the amino acids; then the rest of the moleucle can enter the pathway as pyruvate, acetyl CoA, or an intermediate in the Krebs cycle
    Proteins (polypeptides)
  150. enzymes hydrolyze it into glucose; glucose enters glycolysis and proceeds through aerobic respriation
    Polysaccharides (starch; glycogen)
  151. It is converted into pyruvate and enters the preparatory reaction
  152. It is cut into many two carbon pieces that become acetyl CoA which then enters the Krebs cycle
    Fatty acids
  153. When a cell wants to store excess energy it can stop cellular respiration by:
    converting aceytol CoA into fat molecules
  154. Two pathways that do not use oxygen to generate ATP
    • anaerobic respiration
    • fermentation
  155. Three alternative electron accpetors used in anaerobic respriation
    Nitrate, sulfate and CO2
  156. The process of fermentation involves
  157. In fermentation, electrons from ____ reduce pyruvate. This process regenerates ____ so that glycolysis can continue
    • NADH
    • NAD+
  158. How many ATP are generated during fermentation?
  159. Two types of fermentation
    alcoholic fermentation and lactic acid fermentation
  160. What are the products of Alcoholic fermentation?
    NAD+ and ethanol
  161. What is an example of alcoholic fermentation?
  162. What are the products of lactic acid fermentation?
    NAD+ and three carbon compound lactic acid
  163. What is an example of lactic acid fermentation?
    lactose in milk
  164. What is the most ancient energy pathway?
  165. Products of photosynthesis are the _____ _____ for cellular respiration; and the ___ ____ of cellular respiration are the reactants of photosynthesis
    • starting material - glucose
    • final electron acceptor - O2
  166. The similarity of the energy reactions demonstrates that all types of organisms are related at the _____ level
  167. Uses light as energy source
  168. Glucose is the reactant
    cellular respiration
  169. Glucose is the product
  170. Oxygen is the final electron acceptor and is consumed in the reaction producing water
    cellular respiration
  171. Water denotes electrons and is split in the reaction producing oxygen
  172. carbon dioxide is consumed and turned into glucose
  173. carbon dioxide is produced as glucose is oxidized
    celluar respiration
  174. generates ATP energy
    cellular respiration
  175. occurs in chloroplasts
  176. occurs in mitochondria
    cellular respriation
  177. What is the purpose of cellular reproduction
    to allow cells to duplicate and reproduce
  178. type of cell division in bacteria that produces two bacterial cells
    binary fusion
  179. What happens during DNA replication?
    a cell copies its DNA to be passed along to both daughter cells
  180. which form of DNA is condensed
  181. how many chromosomes do humans have
  182. a duplicated chromosome is composed of two identical halves called ____ _____ held togehter at a constrcited regin called a ______
    • sister chromatids
    • centromere
  183. an orderly sequence of stages that takes place between the time a new cell has arisen from the divison of the parent cell to the point when it has given rise to two daughter cells
    cell cycle
  184. Which stage of the cell cycle does
    growth occurs as organelle doubles
  185. Which step of the cell cycle does DNA replication occur as chromosmes duplicate
  186. Which step of the cell cycle does growth occur as cell prepares to divide
  187. Which step of the cell cycle does the cell have no cell division
  188. What two things divide during cell division (M or Mitotic phase)
    nucleus and cytoplasm
  189. Basis for growth and development, replaces the cells we lose
  190. As a result of mitosis the daughter nuclei are _____ to the parent cell and to each other
  191. Splitting of the cytoplasm into two cells during either mitosis or meiosis
  192. During mitosis the sister chromatids of each chromosome ____ and are now called ____ _____
    • seperate
    • daughter chromosmes
  193. Cytoskeletal structure that pulls the chromatids apart. Consists of fibers made of microtubules
    spindle fiber
  194. What is the name of the primary microtublue organizing center in a cell
  195. What are the compontents in an animal cell
    centioles and aster
  196. What are the components in a plant cell
    lack centrioles
  197. _____ is a continuous process
  198. phase of mitosis where chromosmes are condensing
  199. phase of mitosis where chromosomes are aligned to the spindle equator midway between the spindle poles
  200. phase of mitosis where spindle fibers are attached to the chromosomes disassemble and each pole receives a set of daughter chromosomes. The spindle poles move apart as the unattached spindle fibers slide past one another. This contributes to chromosome seperation
  201. spindle disappears as new nuclear envelopes form around the daughter chromosomes. Each nucleus contains the same number and kinds of chromosomes and the original parent cell
    telophase and cytokinesis
  202. Process that follows mitosis
  203. After cytokinesis when the cell cycle is complete what stage of the cell cycle will the daughter cells enter
  204. In animals a ______ furrow and a _____ ring seperate the cytoplasm to create two independent daughter cells
    • cleavage
    • contractile
  205. In plants a ____ plate forms between the two daughter cells
  206. what can the cycle checkpoints do?
    delay the cell cycle until certain conditions are met
  207. Name the three cell cycle checkpoints
    G1, G2, M
  208. Cell cycle checkpoint where proper growth signals are checked as well as the integrity of the cells DNA
  209. Cell cycle checkpoint that verifies that DNA has been replicated
  210. Cell cycle checkpoint that makes sure the chromosomes are properly attached to the spindle and ensuring they will be distributed accurately to the daughter cells
  211. What controls cell cycle checkpoints?
    interal and external signals
  212. Name two proteins that act as internal signals for the cell cycle
    cyclins and kinases
  213. two external signals that can control the cell cycle
    contact inhibition and telomere
  214. what is contact inhibition
    what stops the cells from dividing
  215. a repeating DNA base sequence at the end of the chromosomes
  216. How does telomere length relate to the cell "age"
    when it becomes too short the cell dies
  217. Permanent death of a cell
  218. A disease of the cell cycle in which cellular reproduction occurs repeatedly without end
  219. The development of cancer
  220. Four characteristics of cancer cells
    • undifferentiated
    • abnormal nuclei
    • do not undergo apoptosis
    • form tumors
  221. Type of tumors that are contained within a capsule and cannot inbvade adjacent tissue
  222. Type of tumors that are invasive and may spread
  223. When cells form a malignant tumor that may travel through the blood or lymph to start new tumors elsewhere in the body
  224. the formation of new blood vessels
  225. Two major functions of meiosis
    Reducing chromosome number and shuffling the chromosomes and genes to produce genetically different gametes
  226. What is a karyotype
    picture of chromosomes
  227. Twenty two pairs of chromosomes are called
  228. One pair of chromosomes are called the _____ _______ because they contain the genes that determine _______
    • sex chromosomes
    • gender
  229. What is the diploid number of chromosomes in humans?
  230. What term describes half of the diploid number?
  231. Why are chromosome pairs called homologous chromosomes
    they have the same size shape and location
  232. Alternative versions of a gene fora particular trait
  233. When during the human life cycle does meiosis occur to produce gametes?
    during sexual reproduciton
  234. Spermatogenesis produces ______; Oogenesis produces _______.
    • sperm
    • eggs
  235. An egg that has been fertilized by an egg is called?
  236. How many chromosomes does a zygote have?
  237. Meiosis produces ____ cells
  238. Before _________, chromosomes are duplicated
    Meiosis I
  239. Each chromosome composed of sister chromatids
  240. During meiosis I, the homologous chromosomes of each pair line up side by side during ______. Each pair of homologous chromosomes forms a _____, an association of four chromatids.
    • synapsis
    • tetrad
  241. Exchange of genetic material between non-sister chromatids
    crossing over
  242. Two reasons why meiosis is an important process
    • keeps chromosome number constant by producing haploid gametes
    • introduces genetic variations - crossing over, independent assortment and fertilization
  243. what stage of meiosis I do the tetrads (homologous chromosomes) line up at the cells equator
    metaphase I
  244. In which stage of meiosis do two haploid daughter nuclei form
    telophase I
  245. In which stage of meiosis do homologous chromosomes seperate and dyads move to poles
    ananphase I
  246. In which stage of meiosis II do chromosomes (dyads) condense
    prophase II
  247. In which stage of meiosis II do sister chromatids seperate
    anaphase II
  248. In which stage of mieosis II do chromosomes (dyads) line up at the equator
    metaphase II
  249. in which stage of meiosis II do four genetically unique haploid daughter cells form
    telophase II
  250. Number of nuclear divisions in mitosis
  251. Number of nuclear divisions in meiosis
  252. Number of duahgter cells produced in mitosis
  253. Number of daughter cells produced in meiosis
  254. are daughter cells haploid or diploid in mitosis
  255. Are daughter cells haploid or diploid in meiosis
  256. Genetically unique or genetically identical duaghter cells in mitosis
  257. Genetically unique or genetically identical daughter cells in meiosis
  258. Do homologous chromosmes pair and form tetrads in mitosis
  259. Do homologous chromosomes pair and form tetrads in meiosis
  260. does crossing over occur in mitosis
  261. does crossing over occur in meiosis
  262. What tissue does mitosis occur in
  263. what tissue does meiosis occur in
  264. When chromosome pairs fail to seperate correctly
  265. A person with monosomy is missing ___ chromosome so their chromosome number is ___
    • 1
    • 45
  266. A person with trisomy has ____ extra chromosome so their chromosme number is ___
    • 1
    • 47
  267. Trisomy 21, an extra copy of chromosome number 21
    down sydrome
  268. What chromosomal condition causes Turner Syndrome
    only 45 chromosomes - only has one x chromosome
  269. What chromosomal condition causes klinefelter syndrome
    has two or more chromosomes
  270. reproductive sex cells
  271. the union of the nucles of a sperm cell with the nucleus of an egg cell producing zygote
  272. 2 nuclear divisons - everything divides twice, the nucleus and cytoplasm to get a total of 4 haploid daughter cells that will have only one copy of each typy of chromosome
  273. containing a single set of chromosomes (n)
  274. containing two sets of chromosomes (2n)
  275. when no cell division is going on
  276. homologous chromosomes pair up during which stage of meiosis I
    prophase I
  277. joining of homologous duplicated chromosoes froming a tetrad
  278. exchange of segments between nonsister chromatids of a tetrad
    crossing over
  279. crossing over takes place in which phase of meiosis I
    prophase I
  280. Microtubules attach and tetrads align at the cell equator
    metaphase I
  281. splitting tetrads back to duplicated chromosomes and it is the duplicated chromosomes going towarde poles
    anaphase I
  282. the alignment of different pairs of homologous chromosomes on the metaphase plate is random
    independent assortment
  283. what stage of meiosis I does independent assortment take place
    anaphase I
  284. duplicated chromosomes arrive at poles, daughter nuclei starting to form around duplicated chromosomes
    telophase I
  285. splits cell and makes 2 haploid daughter cells that will go through Meiosis II
  286. similar to interphase between meiotic divisions except that DNA replication does not occur because the chromosomes are already duplicated. Just a lag time.
  287. What is the difference between Meiosis II and Mitosis
    Meiosis only has 23 chromosomes
  288. Starts with haploid cells and ends with haploid cells
    Meiosis II
  289. Duplicated chromosomes in cells, spindle forms, nuclear envleope, if present, breaks down
    Prophase II
  290. Duplicated chromosomes align at cells equator
    Metaphase II
  291. Duplicated chromosomes split apart, now chromosomes move to poles seperating sister chromatids. Spindle fiber is complete
  292. chromosomes arrive at poles forming daughter nuclei
    telophase II
  293. What does meiosis generate that mitosis does not
    genetic diversity
  294. What are the three sources of variation?
    • Crossing over
    • independent assortment
    • fertilization
  295. the union of two reproductive cells to create a new organism
    sexual reproduction
  296. reproduction that does not involve sex
    asexual reproduction
  297. have both male and female reproductive parts. In some cases they can fertilize themselves
  298. members of a chromosome pair fail to seperate at ananphase
  299. most common chromosome abnormality
    down syndrome