Which stage of the cell cycle begins and ends with interphase
Which stage of the cell cycle is followed by prophase?
During which stage of the cell cycle does chromatin become chromatids?
During which stage of the cell cycle are the chromosomes plain to see?
Signals the beginning of Mitosis
The stage of the cell cycle where chromatin condense into visible duplicated chromosomes packed into a definite form.
The stage of cell cycle where the nuclear envelope begins to break up
The stage of cell cycle where centrosomes duplicate and begin to move toward cellular poles
The stage of the cell cycle where chromosomes meet in the middle
the stage of the cell cycle where the nuclear envelope has disappeared completely
The stage of the cell cycle where microtubules attach to chromosomes and the duplicated chromosomes are aligned at the equator
The microtubules active in cell division are known as the
The stage of cell cycle that comes after metaphase is:
Stage of the cell cycle where the spindle fibers contract and each duplicated chromosome will be split in 1/2; sister chromatids separate and move towards poles of cells as chromosmes
Anaphase is considered over when
chromosomes reach poles
stage of the cell cycle also known as parting of sisters
Stage of cell cycle known as the exit for mitosis
Stage of cell cycle known for "two nuclei"
stage of cell cycle where the nuclear envelopes are reforming
Stage of cell cycle signaling that mitosis is over
During telophase a nucleus forms and ____ takes place
If you can see chromosomes then you know a cell has
begun cell division
When microfilaments contract during cytokinesis they form ____ _____.
During cytokinesis as the ______ ______ continues to pinch in, one cell becomes two
Where does food come from in the first place?
Three pathways that generate ATP from food
Aerobic cellular respiration, anaerobic celluar respriation and fermentation
What type of respiration do plants use?
Respiration in an _____ ______ reaction
The pathways of aerobic respiration ____ glucose and _____ oxygen
The cell can not release all of its potential energy stored in glucoses chemical bond all at once because
it would destroy the cell
Three main pathways of cellular respiration
glycolysis, krebs cycle, and electron transport
Two high energy electron carrier molecules involved in cellular respiration
NADH and FADH2
Which enzyme associated with the electron transport chain is involved in the creation of ATP
Does glycolysis occur in the presence of oxygen
Does glycolysis occur in the absence of oxygen
What is the initial reactant of glycolysis
Is ATP used during the process of glycolysis
yes 2 ATp
What electron carrier is generated during glycolysis?
What method is used to produce ATP during glycolysis
susbtrate level phosphorylation
Which gaseous molecule is released by the Krebs cycle
How many times does the Krebs cycle turn per moleucle of glucose
What happens to the energy stored in the electron carriers NADH and FADH2
they use it to establish a proton gradient across the inner mitochondria membrane
As electrons are passed from one protein to another in the electron transport chain, some of the energy is used to pump ____ ions from the matrix to the inner membrane compartment
The hydrogen ion gradient created by the electron transport chain represents a form of ____ energy
In ___________ _________ protons move down their gradient through ______ ______ channels and ADP is phosphorylated into _____
ATP synthase enzyme
What contributes calories to the diet
enzymes hydrolyze into amino acids; Ammonia is removed from the amino acids; then the rest of the moleucle can enter the pathway as pyruvate, acetyl CoA, or an intermediate in the Krebs cycle
enzymes hydrolyze it into glucose; glucose enters glycolysis and proceeds through aerobic respriation
Polysaccharides (starch; glycogen)
It is converted into pyruvate and enters the preparatory reaction
It is cut into many two carbon pieces that become acetyl CoA which then enters the Krebs cycle
When a cell wants to store excess energy it can stop cellular respiration by:
converting aceytol CoA into fat molecules
Two pathways that do not use oxygen to generate ATP
Three alternative electron accpetors used in anaerobic respriation
Nitrate, sulfate and CO2
The process of fermentation involves
In fermentation, electrons from ____ reduce pyruvate. This process regenerates ____ so that glycolysis can continue
How many ATP are generated during fermentation?
Two types of fermentation
alcoholic fermentation and lactic acid fermentation
What are the products of Alcoholic fermentation?
NAD+ and ethanol
What is an example of alcoholic fermentation?
What are the products of lactic acid fermentation?
NAD+ and three carbon compound lactic acid
What is an example of lactic acid fermentation?
lactose in milk
What is the most ancient energy pathway?
Products of photosynthesis are the _____ _____ for cellular respiration; and the ___ ____ of cellular respiration are the reactants of photosynthesis
starting material - glucose
final electron acceptor - O2
The similarity of the energy reactions demonstrates that all types of organisms are related at the _____ level
Uses light as energy source
Glucose is the reactant
Glucose is the product
Oxygen is the final electron acceptor and is consumed in the reaction producing water
Water denotes electrons and is split in the reaction producing oxygen
carbon dioxide is consumed and turned into glucose
carbon dioxide is produced as glucose is oxidized
generates ATP energy
occurs in chloroplasts
occurs in mitochondria
What is the purpose of cellular reproduction
to allow cells to duplicate and reproduce
type of cell division in bacteria that produces two bacterial cells
What happens during DNA replication?
a cell copies its DNA to be passed along to both daughter cells
which form of DNA is condensed
how many chromosomes do humans have
a duplicated chromosome is composed of two identical halves called ____ _____ held togehter at a constrcited regin called a ______
an orderly sequence of stages that takes place between the time a new cell has arisen from the divison of the parent cell to the point when it has given rise to two daughter cells
Which stage of the cell cycle does
growth occurs as organelle doubles
Which step of the cell cycle does DNA replication occur as chromosmes duplicate
Which step of the cell cycle does growth occur as cell prepares to divide
Which step of the cell cycle does the cell have no cell division
What two things divide during cell division (M or Mitotic phase)
nucleus and cytoplasm
Basis for growth and development, replaces the cells we lose
As a result of mitosis the daughter nuclei are _____ to the parent cell and to each other
Splitting of the cytoplasm into two cells during either mitosis or meiosis
During mitosis the sister chromatids of each chromosome ____ and are now called ____ _____
Cytoskeletal structure that pulls the chromatids apart. Consists of fibers made of microtubules
What is the name of the primary microtublue organizing center in a cell
What are the compontents in an animal cell
centioles and aster
What are the components in a plant cell
_____ is a continuous process
phase of mitosis where chromosmes are condensing
phase of mitosis where chromosomes are aligned to the spindle equator midway between the spindle poles
phase of mitosis where spindle fibers are attached to the chromosomes disassemble and each pole receives a set of daughter chromosomes. The spindle poles move apart as the unattached spindle fibers slide past one another. This contributes to chromosome seperation
spindle disappears as new nuclear envelopes form around the daughter chromosomes. Each nucleus contains the same number and kinds of chromosomes and the original parent cell
telophase and cytokinesis
Process that follows mitosis
After cytokinesis when the cell cycle is complete what stage of the cell cycle will the daughter cells enter
In animals a ______ furrow and a _____ ring seperate the cytoplasm to create two independent daughter cells
In plants a ____ plate forms between the two daughter cells
what can the cycle checkpoints do?
delay the cell cycle until certain conditions are met
Name the three cell cycle checkpoints
G1, G2, M
Cell cycle checkpoint where proper growth signals are checked as well as the integrity of the cells DNA
Cell cycle checkpoint that verifies that DNA has been replicated
Cell cycle checkpoint that makes sure the chromosomes are properly attached to the spindle and ensuring they will be distributed accurately to the daughter cells
What controls cell cycle checkpoints?
interal and external signals
Name two proteins that act as internal signals for the cell cycle
cyclins and kinases
two external signals that can control the cell cycle
contact inhibition and telomere
what is contact inhibition
what stops the cells from dividing
a repeating DNA base sequence at the end of the chromosomes
How does telomere length relate to the cell "age"
when it becomes too short the cell dies
Permanent death of a cell
A disease of the cell cycle in which cellular reproduction occurs repeatedly without end
The development of cancer
Four characteristics of cancer cells
do not undergo apoptosis
Type of tumors that are contained within a capsule and cannot inbvade adjacent tissue
Type of tumors that are invasive and may spread
When cells form a malignant tumor that may travel through the blood or lymph to start new tumors elsewhere in the body
the formation of new blood vessels
Two major functions of meiosis
Reducing chromosome number and shuffling the chromosomes and genes to produce genetically different gametes
What is a karyotype
picture of chromosomes
Twenty two pairs of chromosomes are called
One pair of chromosomes are called the _____ _______ because they contain the genes that determine _______
What is the diploid number of chromosomes in humans?
What term describes half of the diploid number?
Why are chromosome pairs called homologous chromosomes
they have the same size shape and location
Alternative versions of a gene fora particular trait
When during the human life cycle does meiosis occur to produce gametes?