Ecology Lecture Test (2)a

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js165409
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136639
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Ecology Lecture Test (2)a
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2012-02-24 00:26:32
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ecology
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Ecology Lecture 2, pages 15-16
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  1. ________________ are evolved in a way that works for a particular species
    life histories
  2. Define random spacing
    There is no predictable pattern of distribution of individuals, they are as likely to be in any one place as any other.
  3. There is no predictable pattern of distribution of individuals, they are as likely to be in any one place as any other.
    Define random spacing
  4. Define clumped and aggregated grouped
    groups tend to be found together
  5. Group of geese
    gaggle
  6. Group of baboons
    troops
  7. Group of fishes
    schools
  8. Group of birds
    flock
  9. Group of quial
    convey
  10. Group of lions
    pride
  11. Group of bison
    herd
  12. Group of bees
    swarm
  13. Group of wolves
    pack
  14. Group of ants
    colony
  15. A/An _________ flat
    pinoak
  16. A/An _________ grove
    oak
  17. A/An _________ bluff
    pine
  18. A/An _________ glade
    cedar
  19. A/An _________ field
    corn
  20. In a broader sense, clumps may be distributed ___________ or in a _____________.
    randomly, pattern
  21. In reguards to spacing/grouping, ______________ is even spacing between individuals.
    even or uniform
  22. Give some examples of even or uniform spacing..
    honeycomb, breeding sunfishes
  23. List four causes of clumped spacing patterns
    • 1] Habitat patchiness
    • 2] Mode of reproduction
    • 3] Mode for foraging
    • 4] Defense
  24. List three things that could cause habitat patchiness
    • 1] Distribution of moisture
    • 2] Distribution of food
    • 3] Distribution of cover
  25. Modes of reproduction that can cause clumped spacing patterns
    • vegetative reproduction by underground stems
    • dispersal radius of seeds
    • gathering to find mates ( leks, mayfly swarms)
  26. How can the mode of foraging effect spacing patterns?
    hunt together
  27. How can an organisms defensive strategy effect spacing patterns?
    flacks of birds see danger, musk oxen form rings, "selfish herd" - groups to let the other guy get eaten while you hide in the masses
  28. Territoriality of birds and the release of toxins by plants is a form of __________________. This causes _______ distribution.
    competitive interaction, even
  29. Attributes of spacing often are due the _______________ in animals.
    social system
  30. Define society...
    a group of individuals of the same species orgainized in a cooperative manner.
  31. What is society based on?
    communication (visual, auditory, chemical)
  32. Define society
    a group of individuals of the same species organized in a cooperative manner
  33. What is society based on?
    communication
  34. What could be a disadvantage to society (a group of individuals of the same species)?
    attraction of predators, transmission of disease, social stress, local food shortage
  35. What could be an advantage to society ( a group of individuals of the same species)?
    Protection from predators, increase foraging effeiciency, allogrooming
  36. In reguards to a society, how can protection from predators be provided via 'confusion'?
    hard for a predator to decide which one to chase
  37. In reguards to a society, how can protection from predators be provided via 'physical defense'?
    ants, wasps, etc. can attack en masse
  38. Descirbe what the statment 'selfish herd' means?
    • individuals in the middle are most safe
    • bird nest in the middle of a colony are safer from predators
    • fishes in a school dart inward, safer individuals constantly change as the school rolls inward
  39. In reguards to a society, how can one increase foraging efficiency? 5 things.
    • One could spend more time feeding, less watching so can feed better in groups ex: birds
    • predators stand a better chance of flushing prey
    • learn to act like other in group (called....?)
    • information transfer
    • hunting strategy
  40. Define social facilitation
    • learn to act like others in the group
    • if one individual discovers a more efficient means to do something, others can pick up on it
  41. The choice between being social or territorial may depend on __________________.
    distribution of resources
  42. In making the choice between being social or territorial, list examples of how one may be preferred over the other.
    • Social-if resources are patchy you can't defend your share so be social and search for the patches together
    • Territorial-if resources are evenly distributed, being territorial may work best
  43. Define eusociality
    obligatory social behavior with precise roles for different members
  44. What are some characteristics of eusociality?
    cooperative rearing of young, fairly permanent colony (i.e., offspring mostly remain cooperatively associated with parents), dibision of labor (e.g., sterile and reproductive castes)
  45. The special genetic system of a typical eusociality type society is __________.
    haplodiploidy
  46. In a eusociality type society, the female (queen) mates during a ___________ to store sperm.
    Nuptial flight
  47. In the special genetic system, haplodiploidy, fertilized egges produce __________ and unfertilized egges produce ________.
    females (workers), males
  48. In the special genetic system, haplodiploidy, females are _________ and males are _________.
    diploid, haploid

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