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  1. what did descartes dream of finding?
    universal science
  2. What did Descartes believe there was certainty in? What is certainty the basis for?
    Certainty in knowledge, certainty is the basis for knowledge
  3. What did premoderns assume about the world?
    Premoderns believed that there was a world out there to be known by raising and answering questions. We are to udnerstand who we are and what is that world.
  4. What assumptions did Descartes starts out with? What did he do afterwards? What does he set out to do?
    That nothing exists. He turns to the subject. What am I as a thinking things? What operations inside of me do I need to understand in order to determine what is real and true? He sets out to investigate a new kind of intellectual operation; figure out what this operation will do for him.
  5. What does decartes say about the things that we know?A
    Anything we know is a matter of agreement.
  6. What is the way in which Descartes proceeds?
    Starts out with the skeptics position that we know nothing for certain (denies any kind of truth), wants to determine a foundation (establish certain principles) to build upon to figure out what is real and certain.
  7. How does the starting points for Descartes and the ancients differ?
    For ancients, there was already a world to be known. For Descartes, order of thinking and starting point is his own mind
  8. What is the criteria for truths.
    clear and distinct
  9. How is the act of finding truths differ between Descartes and the Ancients?
    Ancients are interested in finding truth and understanding; Descartes wants foundations that will help him make judgments he can rely on.
  10. What did Descartes derive from wax experiment?
    Can't trust the senses, it is deceiving. Need to ask further questions. Think about what is intelligible instead of the sensible (sensible is b/c of intelligible). What remains the same through the phase changes is the most important. Mind and body is split. Know this through mind and not senses
  11. Once Descartes has established that he is a thinking thing. What did he establish and what question arose in him?
    Ideas are real; mind is filled with them; they are clear and distinct, but do they correspoond with reality?
  12. What are the 3 types of ideas? Explain each.
    Adventitious: produced through sense experience; has connection with body, produced by him from his own nature and experience. Innate: idea from birth. Fabrications: those he wills himself.
  13. What does he realize about sense experience?
    Sense experience has impact on him separate from his willing; sense produce ideas that he does not will (feeling cold or hot); it is from something other than himself. Will moves beyond something that is clear and distinct. Likeness of heat into his mind: spontaneous unwilled idea to believe this.
  14. How does Descartes define substance?
    Thinking thing is a type of substance; something he proceeds himself because of his own clear and distinct judgment. Draws upon Aristotle's defintion of substance (not physical object)
  15. Describe the relationship between cause and effect. How does it validate the existence of God.
    Ideas are effects and has to come from somewhere. Effects cannot be greater than the cause. idea of God, a perfect being has come from someone; it doesn't come from him b/c he is not perfect. Infinte being produced this idea and implanted it in his being. Perfection also demands existence.
  16. What are Descarte's foundations?
    he is a thinking thing and need God to get a world back. God is not deceiving becuase deception is an imperfection. It is a sin to deceive. God is all good.
  17. What is error for Descartes?
    Will that extends further than the intellect. Intellect helps one understand what we ought to do. Will is the activity where we choose to do it. Error is when we allow our will to do things we don't think about.
  18. What is sovereignty for Descartes and how does this sovereignty come about for Descartes? How does this differ from the premoderns?
    Sovereignty in truth. For premoderns: truth come as a gift. You can set conditions for it, but it manifests itself to us. For Descartes, you have to define and determine it.
  19. How does Descartes find truths?
    He gives himself power to determine what is true and not tur through what is clear and distinct b/c he thinks that what is clear and distinct for you is the same for all of us.
  20. Who is sovereign for Locke?
    people. social contract: magistrate institute laws to protect civil interests.
  21. Who is sovereign for Hobbes?
    Magistrate has absolute power. Determine what is good or bad through laws. Legal positivism; laws have no reference to what is intrinsically good, laws are acts of will detemined by one person or group through legal structure.
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