Chem 2nd exam

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lacythecoolest
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136670
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Chem 2nd exam
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2012-02-29 03:26:03
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2nd exam
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book review
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  1. M: moles of solute dissolved in 1 liter of solution
    Molarity
  2. m: moles of solute per kg of solvent
    Molality
  3. x: mole of solute divided by total moles
    mole fraction
  4. Depend only on the number of solute particles and the identity of the solvent
    Ionic materials dissociate
    colligative properties
  5. vapor pressure lowering:
    change in P = x (solute) P0(solvent vapor pressure)
  6. freezing pt. depression:
    • change in T = -m(solute)k(fp)
    • constant depends on solvent
  7. boiling pt. elevation
    • Change in T = m(solute)k(bp)
    • constant depends on solvent
  8. osmotic pressure:
    • II = M (solute) RT
    • R is the ideal Gas constant
  9. accounts for turgor pressure in plants and shap in animal cells
    osmotic pressure
  10. Once seperated from crystal, ions are surrounded by water molecules, this is known as:
    solvation
  11. When the solvent is water, the interactions are also referred to as;
    hydration
  12. The degree of randomness is given by a thermodynamic quantity called:
    entropy
  13. The process where the concentration of solute particles in solution increases, which increases the chances of colliding with the surface of the solid, and the solute particle may become reattached to the solid
    Crystallization
  14. A solution that is in equilibrium with undissolved solute is:
    saturated
  15. The amount of solute needed to form a saturated solution in a given quantity of solvent is known as the:
    solubility
  16. If less solute is dissolved than that needed to form a saturated solution the solution is:
    unsaturated
  17. a solution that contains a greater amount of solute than that needed to form a saturated solution
    supersaturated
  18. The stronger the attractions are btwn solute and solvent molecules:
    the greater the solubility
  19. polar liquids tend to dissolve readily in:
    polar solvents
  20. Nonpolar liquids ten to be insoluble in:
    polar liquids
  21. first basic principle identifying spontaneous processes:
    Processes in which the energy content of the system decreases tend to occur spontaneously
  22. second basic principle identifying spontaneous processes:
    Processes occurring at a constant temperature in which the randomness or dispersal in space (entropy) of the system increases tend to occur spontaneously
  23. formations of solutions is favored by the:
    increase in entropy that accompanies mixing
  24. substances with similar intermolecular attractive forces tend to be:
    soluble in one another
  25. The solubility of the gas increases in direct proportion to:
    its partial pressure above the solution
  26. Henry's Law
    S(g)=kP(g)
  27. The solubility of most solid solutes in water increases as:
    the temperature of the solution increases
  28. The solubility of gases in water decreases with:
    increasing temperature
  29. molarity depends on:
    the volume of solution
  30. Molality depends on the :
    mass of solvent
  31. Depend on the collective effect of the number of solute particles
    colligative properties
  32. a substance that has no measurable vapor pressure is:
    nonvolatile
  33. a substance that exhibits a vapor pressure is:
    volatile
  34. When that equilibrium is reached, the pressure exerted by the vapor is called:
    The vapor pressure
  35. The extent to which a nonvolatile solute lowers the vapor pressure is proportuional to its concentration
    Raoult's law
  36. The pressure required to prevent osmosis by pure solvent is the
    osmotic pressure
  37. This forms the dividing line between solutions and heterogeneous mixtures
    Colloids
  38. Scattering of light by colloidal particles
    Tyndall effect
  39. The area of chemistry that is concerned with the speeds, or rates, of reactions is:
    Chemical kinetics
  40. List the 4 factors that affect reaction rates:
    • 1. Physical state of the reactants
    • 2. Concentrations of the reactants
    • 3. Temperature at which the reaction occurs
    • 4. The presence of a catalyst
  41. the change in the concentration of reactants or products per unit of time
    raction rate
  42. Why is it typical for rates to decrease as a reaction proceeds?
    because the concentration of reactants decreases
  43. The exponents m and n in a rate law are called:
    reaction orders
  44. The sum of the orders with respect to each reactant in the rate law
    Overall reaction order
  45. Rate depends on the concentration of a single reactant raised to the first power
    A first-order reaction
  46. Rate depends on the reactant concentration raised to the second power
    A second-order reaction
  47. The time required for the concentration of a reactant to reach one-half of its initial value
    Half-life
  48. How much of the concentration of the reactant is decreased by in a first-order reaction?
    1/2 in each of a series of regularly spaced time intervals, namely, t1/2
  49. based on the kinetic-molecular theory and accounts for reaction rates affected by the concentrations of reactants and the temperature
    Collision Model
  50. The minimum energy required to initiate a chemical reation is called:
    activation energy
  51. The particular arrangement of atoms at the top of the barrier is called
    • Activated complex
    • or
    • transition state
  52. The three factors for the Arrhenius equation
    • 1. the fraction of molecules possessing an energy of Ea or greater
    • 2. The number of collisions occurring per second
    • 3. the graction of collisions that have the appropriate orientation
  53. The process by which a reaction occurs is called the
    reaction mechanism
  54. The number of molecules that participate as reactants in an elementary reation defines its
    molecularity
  55. If a single molecule is involved, the reaction is:
    unimolecular
  56. Elementary reactions ivolving the collision of two reactant molecules are
    bimolecular
  57. Elementary reactions ivolving the simultaneous collision of three molecules are
    Termolecular
  58. If a reaction is an elementary reaction, then its rate law is based directly on its:
    molecularity
  59. rate depends on the concentration
    kinetics
  60. change(reactions)/change(time)
    rate average
  61. change in time
    Instaneous Rate
  62. Why is mixing important?
    For rate of reaction to occur to expose surface area for rxn
  63. What reflects more light?
    Fat going into mycelle

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