Card Set Information

2012-02-23 02:18:35
anatomy physiology body system

"Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology" 3rd edition by Donald C. Rizzo Terminology of major body systems and other basics.
Show Answers:

  1. Abdominopelvic cavity
    Is the second subdivision of the ventral cavity, contains the kidneys, stomach, liver, and gallbladder, small and large intestines, spleen, pancreas, and the ovaries and uterus in women.
  2. Anatomy
    The study of the structure or morphology of the body and how the body parts are organized.
  3. Anterior
    Means toward the front.
  4. Cardiovascular system
    Function is to pump and distribute blood, which carries oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to and from the cells of the body. Consists of the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries.
  5. Caudal
    Is synonymous with inferior, specifically means toward the tail.
  6. Cephalad
    Or cranial means toward the head, is synonymous with superior.
  7. Connective tissue
    Type of tissue that supports or binds.
  8. Coronal
    Divides the anterior and posterior portions of the body at right angles to the sagittal plane.
  9. Cranial
    Means toward the head, synonymous with superior.
  10. Cranial cavity
    Cavity that contains the brain.
  11. Digestive system
    Function is to convert food into simpler substances that along with other nutrients can be absorbed by the cells of the body and eliminate indigestible wastes. Includes the alimentary canal(mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, rectum, and anus) with its associated glands( salivary, liver, and pancreas).
  12. Distal
    Means away from the point of attachment or origin.
  13. Dorsal
    Means backside, can also be used for posterior.
  14. Endocrine system
    Works with the nervous system through the hypothalamus of the brain, which contains the pituitary gland. Consists of the endocrine(ductless) glands. The master gland, or pituitary, controls the other glands-thyroid, adrenal glands, ovaries, and testes. These glands produce hormones that chemically regulate the body's functions. Also see thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, as well as portions of kidneys, pancreas, liver, and placenta.
  15. Epithelial tissue
    Type of tissue that protects, absorbs, or secretes.
  16. Frontal
    Divides the anterior and the posterior portions of the body at right angles to the sagittal plane.
  17. Homeostasis
    Tha maintenance of the internal environment of the body.
  18. Horizontal
    Plane that divides the superior and inferior portions of the body.
  19. Inferior
    Means lowermost or below.
  20. Integumentary system
    Made up of two layers, epidermis and dermis. Includes the skin, hair, nails, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands. Functions include insulation of the body, protection of the body from environmental hazards such as UV rays, chemicals, and regulation of body temperature and water. Also has receptor sites to detect changes in temperature and pressure.
  21. Lateral
    Means toward the side or away from the midline of the body.
  22. Lymphatic system
    Consists of the lymph nodes, the thymus gland, the spleen, and the lymph vessels. Function is to drain tissue spaces of excess interstitial fluids and absorb fats from the intestine and carry them to the blood. Also protects the body from disease by developing immunities and destroying most invading disease causing microorganisms.
  23. Medial
    Means nearest the midline of the body.
  24. Mediastinum
    Found between the pleural cavities, contains the heart, thymus gland, lymph and blood vessels, trachea, esophagus, and nerves. The diaphragm muscle separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity.
  25. Midsagittal
    Plane that vertically divides the body through the midline into two equal left and right portions or halves.
  26. Muscle tissue
    Tissue that can shorten and thicken and contract.
  27. Muscular system
    Consists of muscles, fasciae,(fibrous connective tissues), tendon sheaths, and bursae(fibrous sacs). Skeletal muscles pull on bones to allow movement; smooth muscle pushes food through the digestive tract and blood through the circulatory system; and cardiac muscle causes contraction of the heart.
  28. Nervous system
    Consists of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, and the sensory and motor structures of the body. Functions include controlling, correlating and regulating the other systems of the body; interpreting stimuli, controlling special senses of sight, hearing, taste, and smell.
  29. Nervous tissue
    Type of tissue that transmits impulses.
  30. Parietal
    Refers to the walls of a cavity.
  31. Pathology
    The study of diseases of the body.
  32. Pericardial cavity
    Space between the epicardium of the heart and the inner layer of the of the pericardial sac.
  33. Physiology
    The study of the functions of the body parts.
  34. Pleural cavities
    Small space between the pleural membranes.
  35. Posterior
    Toward the back.
  36. Protoplasm
    The liquid part of the cell, surrounded by a limiting membrane, the cell membrane, also called the the plasma membrane, which selectively determines what what may enter and exit the cell.
  37. Proximal
    Nearest the point of attachment or origin.
  38. Reproductive system
    Consists of the ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina in the female and the testes, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, penis, and the urethra in the male. Functions include maintenance of sexual characteristics and the perpetuation of our species.
  39. Respiratory system
    Composed of the nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs. It brings oxygen to and eliminates carbon dioxide from the blood.
  40. Sagittal
    Any plane parallel to the midsagittal or median plane vertically dividing the body into unequal right and left portions.
  41. Skeletal system
    Composed of the bones, cartilage, and the membranous structures associated with bones. Protects the soft and vital parts of the body and provides support for the bodies tissues. Bones act as levers, system also manufactures blood cells in red bone marrow and stores fat in yellow bone marrow, also stores mineral salts like calcium and phosphorous.
  42. Spinal cavity
    Contains the spinal cord.
  43. Superior
    Means uppermost or above.
  44. Thoracic cavity
    First subdivision of the ventral cavity that is surrounded by the rib cage and contains the heart and lungs.
  45. Transverse
    Plane that divides the superior and inferior portions of the body.
  46. Urinary system
    Consists of two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, and the urethra. Functions include the chemical regulation of the blood, the formation and elimination of urine, and the maintenance of homeostasis.
  47. Ventral
    Means belly side, also used for anterior.
  48. Viscera
    The organs of a cavity.
  49. Visceral
    Refers to the covering of an organ.