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- One of the Hero of San Antonioo He was 47.
- One of the senior
- He get’s up Tells “Who follows OLD BEN MilaM”
- 300 Men Followed
Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara
- An Envoy of the revoluionaries to the United States
- Claims himself as governor when Texas an independent state of Mexico
- After 1819 Was dissastisfied with border and enlisted James Long and took Nacogdoches worked with Magee.
Augusts W. Magee
- Us Army Officer from Louisiana
- Were able to take the cites of Nacogdoches 1812. La Bahia, 1813. San Antonio in 1813.
- Worked with Gutierrez de Lara
- Enlisted by De Lara in 1819 when he was dissastified with border and took Nacogdoches.
- Talked to Jean Lafitte a pirate
- Galveston, Jean Lafitte
- Whle they were gone Spain took over
- Shot by prison guard after arrested
Steven F. Austin
- Having a good time in New Orleans
- Comes to Texas
- Son of Moses the "Old 300"
- Capable, was a state legislature, a judge, a good farmer.
- Perfect colony start up
- Begins settling in area about 150 settlers before Mexican Independence in 1821.
- Had a contract with the Emperor of Mexico
- IN 1833 he met Santa Ana and agrees with request. Immigration was repealed.
- Was arrested released until Christmas and was home by 1835 in July.
General Jaoaguin de Arrendondo
Was sent to put the Revolution down in which De lara took Nacogdoches.
Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana
- Met Austin 1833
- Agreed to Austin's claims and Immigration was repealed
- De La Penia, a dairy that told of seven survivors
- At first a Liberal in 1833 but became a centralist
- Politial Opportunists
- Brother in law was Cos.
- He and Cos seige on the Alamo
- Was captured and made sign two treaties: The Public Treaty and The Secret treaty
William B. Travis
- Led 150 Angry Texan Militia at Bradburn
- Attack at Anahuac
- Was in charge of the Alamo which was a key defense to San Antonio.
- Ordered by By Houston to abondon
- 183 Volunteers along with Crockett and Bowie
- "BIG DRUNK"
- Designated as temorary head of government in 1835.
- Won Presidency in 1836-38 and stepped down.
- "Hero of San Jacinto"
- In 1841-44 ran for Presidency due to not liking how Lamar was trying to do.
- Wanted the enventual annexation of Texas to the United States.
Sam Houston's Goal in First Term
- Mainatin Security: Possible attack of the Mexican Army and the loss of the republic.
- Will maintain peaceful relationship with the indians
- Lived among the Cherokees, very different mindset than other Texans.
- Fiscal Responsibility: Texas was not much and if debt incur it would not be good for US to pay off debt
- Long Term goal was for Texas eventual annexation.
Sam Houston's Foreign Policy
- Avoid Conflict with Mexico
- Close ties to US and Britain to make US want Texas more and have protection from Mexican
- Effect US Annexation was his goal
Election of 1841
- Burnet Vs. Houston
- Houston won.
- It was personal due to Lamar got Houston's Adopted Father killed Chief Phillip Bowels.
- Reversed Lamar's Policies
- Last President of the Republic of Texas
- Hand Picked by Houston
- Continued Houston's Policies especially annexation
- Jone's Last official act was lowering the flag
David G. Burnet
- Becomes the interm president of Texas in March 16, 1836.
- Orders Houston to Engage Santa Ana during the runaway scrape but Houston is waiting for the right place and the right time.
William H. Whaton
Elected to lead instead of Austin in the Second Convention at San Felipe in April 1833
- Ran for the first presidential election o f 1836
- Lost to houston
Mier Y Teran
- Inspection of Texas in 1828-9
- The Fredonian Rebellion
- Survey of the Eastern Border
- Check on American Settlers
- More Texans than Mexicans
- More European settlers
- Increasing Trade With Mexico rather than the US
- More troops in Texas
- Reformulate new policies must be in placed: Law of April 6, 1830.
Juan Davis Bradburn
- A Centralist
- Arrested Madero for issuing land contracts to Americans which was illegal.
- Eventually Releas Madero but Mier y Teran burned new town which angerd Texas settlers.
- At the Anahuac Disturbances Bradburn Strikes accussed by the Teans on giving sanctuary on tow run away slaves...
- Texans did not like this because they did not want every slave to do this.
- Customs Inspector
- Collet cutoms from the mouth of Colorado River
- Restrictions on Trade
Willam S. Peters
- February 1841
- North Texas, 16,000 sq. miles
- Settled 2,205320-
- and 640-acre plots
- Castro's Colony 1842
- 2134 by 1847
- First settlement was betwen San Antonio and Rio Grande
- Officer in the Goliad Masscre in March 7, 1836.
- Massacred in Goliad.
- Ordered by Santa Ana executed by General Urrea.
- 240;40 Survived
- 40 Were Executed.
- Effect on Texas: No Prisoners will cause the Texans to sand and fight.
Mirabeau B. Lamar
- 1838-1841 Served as President of the Republic of Texas for full three years term.
- Had vision that Texas can be an Indepenent Nation
- Was vice president under Houston in 1836
- Experienced elected offical from GA and have military experience.
- Burnet was his vice president.
- Exact opposite of Houston
- Texas Nationalist
- Increased Spending: Military, builds Navy
- Frontier Defense: Towards the Indians, follow Texas or Get Out, or Get Killed
- Antagonized Mexico: Funds Raids to Mexico causing retaliatory raids by the Mexicans
Prince Carl of Solms-Braunfels
- Settled New Braunfels in 1845.
- Part of the The “Adelverein: Colony
Law of April 6, 1830
- “American Problem”
- Non US Emigration
- Ends Emigration from US
- No More Slaveso End Slaves
- Tax Exemption Repealed
- Trade with United States Banned
- More Troops
- More Tax Collectors
- Not honest with them
- Not Honest with customs
- • Reaction?: Upset lots of people a lot
- Much of these people were pretty much loyal mexica
- Slave Issue was Ignored
- Found was around slave. Using the indentured servants
- People must have sneaked in Circumventing Emigration Laws
Branch T. Archer
- President of the Consultation of 1835
- Not against Mexico but want the Constitution of 1824
Miller County, Arkansas
- Separated by the Red River
- People were coming into texas and crossing the red river and coming into texas claiming that they were in arkansas
- • Unscrupulous, would be Empresario•'
- Grant near Nacogdocheso Goes to their land
- Sells land that already settled
- Sells land from under people that settled there for hundred of years
- Already partially Settled
- Edward’s Mistake
- Contract Cancelled
- Republic of Redonia
- Dec 21 1826
- Established by Haden and Benjamin Edwards
- Malitia comes togeter with Austin and other colonists and ran them out.
- Rebels fled 1827
- Dewitts’s Colony
- Most successful after Austin
- First contract in 1825
- Spanish will send them cannons
- Settled 144 Families
- Located west of Austin’s colony
- (Near Gonzales)
- Comancheo Always being attack
- Used cannons against Indians
- Most would settlers would go to De Leon’s to escape Indian attacks which will cause tensions
Martin De Leon
- De Leon’s Colony
- On Coast, Near Present day Victoria
- 200 by 1833
- Slaves were not counted in the equation
- (NOTE: 22 other contracts)o Varing degrees of success and failures
Marques de Rubi
- o Report on Texas (Los Adaes)
- Antiquated guns
- Settlers married locals and became farmers
- Texas was “waste of money”
- Those Americans keep on squatting in Texas
- They keep moving in
- Needs change for Texas
- Result of Reforms: San Antonio and La Bahia/Goliado Troops at Nacogdoches: New Trade Policy “Secularization”
- Treaty with Comanche, 1785: Spanish Adopt French-style Indian Policy
Luis Juchereau de St. Denis
- Frenchman, Invited by a Spanish priest
- Trader and adventurer
- Was good at setting up trade posts
- Unwelcome Guest; Spanish Response
- Was arrested with Father Hidalgo
- Married a daughter one of the Presido
Father Damien Massanet
- Founded 1st Spanish Mission in E. Texas
- Response to Las Salle, March 1760
- Three Priests and 110 Soldiers
- Met by Caddos: Were friendly to them
- Established a tiny mission on Neches River
- Three Priest s and three soldiers
- Went Badly: Epidemic, Drought
- Caddos became hostile to the Spanish due to brining in diseases
- Abandoned by October 1693: Set Fire to it and ran off
- Little they knew the Spanish were pulling the missions out
Sieur de La Salle
- Robert Cavalier, Sieur de La Salle•
- Trader and Explorer
- Land Claims for France
- Establish colony; 280 colonists.
- Landed in Matagorda Bay, Feb, 1685.
- Got blown of course
- FORT ST. Louis: Built by La Salle
- Small group of people 280 or so once fort was built went to look around the area
- Return Fort St. Louis and the ships were gone, one burned, on wreck
- Spanish Reaction: 45 Survivors
- La Salle Killed
- Six Returned to Canada
- --French begins snooping in Claims in Louisiana and parts of Texas
Luis de Moscoso de Alvarado
- Took over after Hernando de Soto was killed.
- Hernando de Soto 1542
- Led 600 Men
- Died on Mississippi River in May 1542
- Looked for Coronado
- Goes through Texas
- Floated down Mississippi River
- 311 Survivors
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
- True Conquistador
- Governor in Mexico
- 300 horsemen, 70 infantry, and Over 1,000 Indians
- Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas
- El Turco and “Quivira”
- North to Kansas
- El Turco’s Death: Possibly just heard of the stories: Killed him buy garroted
- Coronado returned to Mexico in 1542 a two year expedition
- Saw many land and many people good recon mission
- Saw arid plains• Desserts• First to visit the interior of Texas
Cabeza de Vaca
- Panfilo de Narvaez
- Landed in Florida in 1528: 242 Men Stranded: “Isle of Misfortune”
- Karankawas: captured and enslaved them
- Cabeza de Vaca; Estevanico (Slave)
- Coahuiltecans: Heard the tale of Vaca and were touched about their experiences which began in 1528
- Finally Arrives in Mexico 1536: Tells stories of cities of Gold: “Golden Cities”
- De Vaca’s Report: Wrote Ordeal
- Try to find out any information he can about the people in the region
- Brought first black slave in Texas
- Wrote about the value of the places
- Heard stories of the “Golden Cities”
- Old legends and stories no facts proving them to be true Brought about a spur in exploration and search of riches and glory
Alvarez de Pineda
- Cortez in Mexico at this time 1519
- Map coast of Gulf of Mexico
- “River of Palms” Possible to be Rio Grande?
- Mapped Coast of Texas
- Pineda Killed by Indians in, 1520