Chapter 20, Urinary System

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tville01
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Chapter 20, Urinary System
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2012-02-28 06:33:17
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Chapter 20 Urinary System
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Chapter 20, Urinary System
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  1. What are the major functions of the urinary system?
    • Regulation of volume,compositon, and pH
    • Remove metabolic waste by making urine
    • Rate of RBC production by producing Erythropoietin Regulate blood pressure by producing renin(enzyme-hormone)
    • Regulate calcium ion absorptionby activating Vitiman D
  2. What makes up the urinary system?
    • pair of kidneys
    • pair of ureters
    • urinary bladder
    • urethra
  3. Located on either side of the vertebral column, high in the posterior wall of the abdominal cavity, between the 12th thoracic and 3rd lumbar vertebrae, retroperitoneal
    kidneys
  4. Which kidney is higher and why?
    Left (1.5-2cm) because right kidney is displaced by the liver
  5. Space behind parietal peritoneum
    Retroperitoneal
  6. 3 Tisssue layers that cover kidneys
    • Renal capsule
    • adipose capsule
    • renal fascia
  7. What is the innermost fibrous tissue layer that covers the kidney?
    renal capsule
  8. What is the middle tissue layer that covers the kidney?
    adipose capsule
  9. What is the outermost tissue layer that covers the kidney and serves to anchor the kidney to surrounding tissues?
    renal fascia
  10. 12 cm long, 6cm wide, 3 cm thick, about 5 oz. in weight, reddish brown bean shaped organ
    kidney
  11. Enterance to the renal sinus, point where ureter leaves kidney, and blood vessels, lymph vessels and nerves communicate with kidney
    Hilum
  12. Indentation in the medial border
    Hilum
  13. What will be found in the renal sinus?
    • renal vessels
    • renal pelvis
  14. Superior end of ureter, recieving area for urine
    Renal pelvis
  15. Funnel-shaped sac
    Renal pelvis
  16. What are the 2 kidney regions?
    • Renal cortex
    • Renal medulla
  17. Reddish outer region of kidney, contacts the renal capsule, appears granule due to arrangements of tiny tubules associated with nephrons
    Renal cortex
  18. Continuations of the renal cortex that are separated by renal pyramids
    renal columns
  19. Kidney's inner region composed of 5-18 conical tissue masses called renal pyramids
    renal medulla
  20. The _____ of the renal pyramid is directed toward the renal cortex
    base
  21. The _____ of the renal pyramid projects into the renal sinus
    apex
  22. Apexes form the ________ of the pyramids
    renal papillae
  23. Renal papillae project into _______
    Minor calyx
  24. Monor calyx converge and form _____
    Major calyx
  25. Major calyx merge to form the _______, the expanded portion of the ureter
    renal pelvis
  26. Formed in the kidneys to remove metabolic waste from the blood
    Urine
  27. Hormone produced in the kidney to stimulate RBC production
    Erythropoietin
  28. Proteolytic enzyme-hormone that is produced in kidney and stimulates formation of vascoconstrictor Angiotensin
    Renin(helps regulate BP)
  29. How does the kidney help regulate absorption of calcium ions?
    activates vitamin D
  30. Which artery supplies the kidney with blood?
    renal artery
  31. Where does the renal artery arise from?
    abdominal aorta
  32. Where does the renal artery enter the kidney?
    hilum
  33. Large diameters, conveys blood to the glomerulus of a nephron
    afferent arterioles
  34. network of blood capillaries, site of filtration, only found in the renal cortex
    glomerulus
  35. Blood leaves the glomerular capillaries and enters ______(smaller in diameter)
    Efferent arterioles
  36. Efferent arteioles branch into a capillary network called ____________
    Peritubular capillary system
  37. Blood flow through the peritubular system is under ______ pressure
    low
  38. Network of capillaries that surround various portions of the renal tubule
    peritubular capillary system
  39. Portion of the peritubular system that dips into the renal medulla and back, supplies the loop of Henle, and is associated with Juxtamedullary nephrons
    Vasa Recta
  40. Single vein that exits kidney at hilum and empties into inferior ven cava
    renal vein
  41. Functional unit of the kidney
    nephron
  42. A single nephron is consists of a ______ and a ______
    • renal corpuscle
    • renal tubule
  43. Where would the glomerulus and bowman's capsule be found?
    renal corpuscle
  44. Double layered cup at the end of a renal tubule that recieves fluid filtered in the glomerulus
    bowman's capsule
  45. What are the layers of squamos epithelial cells that compose the inner and outer layer of the bowman's capsule?
    • Parietal layer(outer)
    • Visceral layer(Inner)
  46. Which layer of the bowman's capsule directly covers the glomerulus and is composed of podocytes?
    Visceral
  47. Highly modified epithelial cells with little feet
    podocytes
  48. Secondary processes of podocytes that embrace capillaries of the glomerulus
    pedicals
  49. Narrow spaces that lie between pedicals
    slit pores
  50. Can the pedicals from one podocyte embrace more than one glomerular capillary?
    yes
  51. Renal tubule continues from ______
    bowman's capsule
  52. Sequnce of strucures in the renal tubule
    • proximal convoluted tubule(PCT)
    • Nephron Loop(Loop of Henle)
    • Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
    • Collecting duct
  53. Located in renal cortex, lined with simple cubodial or columnar epithelium, contains microvilli, large cells, quite coiled
    PCT
  54. Thick then thin descending limbs(similar to PCT) that penetrate into pyramids of the renal medulla
    descending loop of henle
  55. thin ascending and then thick ascending limbs(similar to DCT)
    ascending loop of henle
  56. Thin limbs of the loop of henle are composed of _______
    squamos epithelium
  57. Thick limbs of the loop of henle are composed of ___________
    cuboidal epithelium
  58. Terms that refer to the height of the epithelium of the nephron loop
    thick and thin
  59. Located in the Renal cortex, coiled but shorter than PCT, lined with cuboidal epithelium, NO microvilli,smaller cells with large lumens
    Distal Convoluted tubule (DCT)
  60. Part of collection system that empties urine into minor calyox through renal papilae, straight tubule joined by several merging DCT
    collecting duct
  61. Consists of juxtaglomerular cells and macula densa
    juxtaglomerular apparatus
  62. Located at the point of contact between DCT and afferent and efferent artireioles of its parent nephron
    juxtaglomerular apparatus
  63. Cells of macula densa are sensitive to what ion content of tubular fluid?
    chloride
  64. Modified wall segment of DCT where cells become columnar
    macula densa
  65. What cells produce renin?
    juxtaglomerular cells
  66. Renin is secreted whenever the B/P in the afferent arterioles ______
    drops
  67. Cells found in the tunica media of the afferent arteriole near attachment to glomerulus
    juxtaglomerular cells
  68. What are the 2 types of nephrons found in the kidney?
    • cortical
    • juxtamedullary
  69. Which nephrons are more numerous, with short loop of henle that dont' reach the medulla
    cortical
  70. Which nephrons have their renal corpuscules located in the renal cortex, near the kidney surface?
    cortical
  71. Which nephrons have their renal corpuscules near the medulla, long loops of henle, and are important in concentrating urine?
    juxtamedullary
  72. Removes waste from the blood and regulate water and electrolyte concentrations
    nephrons
  73. openings in the glomerular capillaries that make them more permeable
    fenestrae
  74. water, ions, and dissolved materials are filtered out of glomerular capillary and into glomerular capsule
    glomerular filtration
  75. Glomerular filtration is mostly due to ______
    filtration pressure, caused by hydrostatic pressure of blood in glomerular capillaries
  76. What 2 forces oppose the filtration
    • collioid osmotic pressure(plasma)
    • capsular hydrostatic pressure(bowma's capsule)
  77. Opposing filtratin source(during glomerular filtration) that is due to the presence of proteins, creates a drawing force, causing water returns to plasma of glomerular capillaries
    colliod osmotic pressure
  78. Would colloid osmotic pressure occur in the bowman's capsule?
    No
  79. Opposing filtratin source(during glomerular filtration) that is due to the resistance of the water and solutes to flow into the capsule due to fluid already being present
    capsular hydrostatic pressure
  80. An increase in either of the opposing forces during glomerular filtration would _____ filtration
    reduce
  81. Fluid received by the bowman's capsule, similar to tissue fluid, lacks proteins
    filtrate
  82. Kidneys produce _____ ml of glomeular fluid per minute and ______ L per day
    • 125
    • 180
  83. Glomerular filtration rate is proportionate to
    filtration pressure
  84. Vascoconstriction of an effernet arteriole would ______ glomerular hydrostatic pressure, which would increase GFR
    increase
  85. How is filtration rate regulated in the kidneys?
    autoregulation
  86. Filtration rate is influenced by the ______ nervous system
    sympathetic
  87. If blood pressure and volume decrease the SNS would ______ the afferent arterioles, which would _____ GFR, therby ______ urine formation
    • vasoconstrict
    • decrease
    • decerase
  88. If there were excess body fluids in the system the SNS would cause _____ of the afferent arterioles, which would ____ GFR, therby _____ urine output
    • vasodilate
    • increase
    • increasing
  89. Where is renin secreted?
    juxtaglomerular cells
  90. Renin is released in response to stimulation from SNS and renal _____(in the afferent arterioles) when B/P _____
    • baroreceptors
    • drops
  91. When sodium, potassium, and chloride ions are low in the tubular fluid the ____ _____ will also stimulate the release of renin
    macula densa
  92. Renin splits ______ to create _______
    • angiotensinogen
    • angiotensin I
  93. What enzyme converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II? Where is this enzyme concentrated?
    • ACE
    • lungs
  94. Most potent vasoconstictor of the body?
    angiotensin II
  95. Angiotensin II stimulates the release of ______ from the ____ _____
    • aldosterone
    • adrenal cortex
  96. aldosterone release:
    ______ sodium reabsorption
    ______ urine output
    _____ Blood volume and B/P
    • increase
    • decrease
    • increase
  97. What hormone will be released from the atria when it is streached due to high blood volume and B/P?
    atrial natriuretic peptide(ANP)
  98. inhibits release of renin and aldosterone, helps return B/P to normal
    atrial natriuretic peptide(ANP)
  99. What portion of the nephron is effected by the release of aldosterone?
    DCT and collecting duct
  100. Where does most reabsorption happen on the nephron?
    PCT

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