Vet Sci 4 NS

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Author:
lynnsy
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136704
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Vet Sci 4 NS
Updated:
2012-02-21 09:09:18
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bel rea vet sci
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Vet Sci 4
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  1. Physiologic Divisions of NS
    • Somatic
    • Autonomic
    • -Sympathetic (Fight or flight)
    • -Parasympathetic (rest and digest)
  2. Four parts of brain
    • 1.Cerebrum (thought higher order)
    • 2.Diencephalon
    • -Thalamus/Hypo
    • 3.Cerebellum (Balance,head,neck)
    • 4.Brainstem (cough,swallow,arousel)
    • -Midbrain
    • -Pons
    • -Medulla
  3. 5 Levels of Consciousness
    • 1. Conscious: awake aware
    • 2. Hysterical: exaggerated and inappriote response
    • 3.Depressed: less responsive
    • 4.Stupor: eyes open cant focus
    • 5. Coma: non responsive
  4. Dorsal Root Ganglea (func)
    Sensory
  5. Ventral Root (func)
    Motor
  6. Vertebral Formula
    C7 T13 L7 S3 Ca3-24
  7. Brachial Plexus
    collection of nerves C5-T2 - feed into front limb
  8. Lumbosacral Plexus
    L4-S3 protected by pelvis
  9. Disease of the Brain
    1. Trauma
    • Direct or 2ndary (cranial pressure - lack of oxygen)
    • C/S: Ataxic, anisocornia,epistaxis,ear & eye bleeds
    • Tx: Physical:prop head up / Med:Mannitol,Diazapam,Dexamethasone
    • Info for Clients: Irreversable, coma > 48hr = dead
  10. Disease of the Brain
    2. Idiopathic Epilepsy
    • Dx by rule outs/exclusions
    • C/S: young animals, neuro norm between seizures
    • Tx: Drugs hepatotoxic : Phenobarbital-if more than 1 a month / Potassium Bromide
    • Info for clients: goal to dec amt % how bad seizures, cant cure, every 6 months for liver tests
    • Breeds: intact, Germans, Goldens, Labs, poodles
  11. Disease of the Brain
    3.Status Epilepticus
    • Complecation not Dz, of seizing events/continual activity lasting longer than 5-10mins
    • C/S: seizures, violent ones
    • Tx: Valium, Sodium pentobarbital / check BG and blood calcium
    • Info : same as 2.
  12. Disease of the Brain
    4.Intervertebral Disc Disease
    • Types of Herniations
    • Type 1: young dog,acute rupture,T/L junc
    • Type 2: chronic problem, loss of func over time
    • C/S: pain,motor or sensory defects, dec pinikulos response, uni or bi
    • Tx: Type 1: Med- steriods,bed rest,pain meds / Surgical- hemilamanectomy
    • Type 2: steriods / Sx
    • Infor for Clients: keep them at good weight, support backs holding
  13. Disease of the Brain
    5.Idiopathic Vestibular Disease
    • C/S: incompasitating loss of equilibium, head tilt,ataxia, comitting
    • Dx: acute disorder, middle aged dog/cat
    • Tx: valium, antiemtics, fluids, supportive care
    • Outcome: will resolve in 3-6weeks if truelly idiopathic
  14. Disease of the Brain
    6.Laryngeal Paralysis
    • Causes
    • -Acquired -lead poisoning,rabies,trauma,inflamedvegas
    • -Idiopathic - older dogs
    • -Hereditary - neutaring
    • C/S: inspitory strider, exercise intolerance, cynotic
    • Dx: LOOK
    • Tx: laryngeal tieback
    • Info for clients: Not good or ok - aspiration amonia / do not breed
  15. Disease of the Brain
    7.Tick Paralysis
    • Cause: Salivary neurotoxin (from female)
    • C/S: Paralysis - dragging hindleg than moves cranially
    • Dx: Find ticks R/O others
    • Tx: remove tick
    • Info for clients: flea tick prevention
  16. Hallmark of Dyspnea
    Open mouth breathing / cyanotic
  17. Measuring O2 Concentration
    • 1.Partial Pressure O2 Concen. - Directly proportional to amt # gas molecules in a given environment
    • 2. arterial blood sample
    • 3. Pulse Oximetry - 90% or below is hypoxic
    • -Factors
    • Body Temp, Movement, Light, Pigment
  18. O2 Delivery
    • O2 Rich Environment = 40%
    • Prolonged exposure = free raticals, blindness, fibrosis, pulmonary edema, atalectises
  19. Methods of O2 Delivery
    • 1.Mask
    • 2.Oxyhood
    • 3.Nasal Cath - humidifier
    • 4.INtratracheal Cath
    • 5.O2 Cages
  20. Body Fluid Distribution
    • TBW = 60%
    • -intracellular 40% of 60% (Na,Cl,K)
    • -extracellular 20% of 60% - can measure
  21. Fluid Loss
    • Sensible
    • -Urine, Blood, Vomitting, Diarrhea
    • Insensible
    • -Perspiration, Respiration, Fecal material
  22. Crystalliod Fluids
    • Main type used
    • 1. Replacement (sever dehydration/shock) -PSS or LRS
    • 2. Maintence -(normal daily loss but cant intake) -LRS & Dextrose - 0.45% NACL & Dextrose
    • 3.Hypertonic Saline - (rapidly inc IV blood volume, GDV, Shock) - 7.2% NaCl
    • 4. 5% Dextrose in Water
  23. Colloids
    • Are: high moleculer weight
    • How?: traps in blood stream - pull water to them
    • For: Shock, sepsis,gastroenteric Dz, sever burns
    • Contraindication: can't clot, Heart Dz, Pulmonary Dz
  24. Blood Products
    • Replace
    • RBC, Plasma Proteins, Plts, Coagulation factors
  25. Parenteral Nutrition
    • Sever GI upset - cant feed orally
    • Peripheral - PPN
    • Central Vein - TPN - Total nutrients
  26. Reasons for Fluid Therapy
    • -replacing deficits of IV volume
    • -meeting Maintenance fluid needs in patients
    • -replacing losses
    • -fluid diuresis
    • -anesthesia/Sx
  27. Admin fluids
    • Orally
    • IV
    • SQ
    • IP
    • IO
    • Rectal

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