School of thought in psychology since the early 1900s. Suggest that behavior can be explained by means of environmental causes.
John B. Watson
B. F. Skinner
Focuses on mental processes including how people think, perceive, remember, and learn.
Jean Piaget- proposed one of the most influential theories on the stages of cognative developmet
Attaches special importance to technology and economic factors in the development of a society.
American psychologist; stage theory of development
Austrain psychiatrist; sexual drive; Oedipus complex
Applies the scientific method to the examination of the social word and uses analogies between individual organisms and society. Empasis is on use.
Emile Durkheim-French sociologist-considered one of the fathers of modern sociology.
Talcott Parsons- American Sociologist; developed sturctural functionalism as a means of analyzing society
Developed in Germany and Austria in the late 19th century. Believed that the conscious experience must ne considered as a wholem rather than broken down into small elements. The whole is greater that just the sum of its parts
Wolfgang Kohler-worked with chimps
American anthropologist and primologist; know for her chimpanzee studies in Tanzania
Schools of though outside of the mainstram economics and Post-Kenynesian economics
Developed in the 1950s in response to both behaviorism ad psychoanalysis Focused on free will, personal growth, and self-actualization.
Carl Rogers- among the founders of the humanistic approachto psychology. Rogers is widely considered to be one of the founding fathers of psychotherapy research
Swiss psychatrist; self-realization
German economist; founder of communism
Russian physiologisy psychologisy; conditioning on reflexes
Founded by Sigmund Freud
States that the human mind is composed of three elements: the id, The ego, and the superego. The unconsious plays an important role in the explanation of behavior.
American psychologisy; behaviorist; studied the effect of reinforcement on behavior; worked with rates and pigions;
Suggest that mening is produced through practices and activites. The mind uses bimary opposited that differ from culture to culture
People interact with each other by interpreting each other's actions. Their interactions are therefore based on the meaning they attach to the action.
George H. Mead
Erving Goffman-studied social interaction
German sociologist; argued in The Protestant ethis and the Sprirtual Capitalism that Protestantism influenced the development of capitalism.