Pharmacology (HIT)

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Pharmacology (HIT)
2012-02-21 18:44:46

Chapters 3&4
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  1. When giving a medication for the first time, the health care person should assess what type of response
    Hypersensitivity in patients with history of know allergies
  2. Name a example, trade name, and classification of a drug from a plant source
    • Poppy Plant
    • Morphine, Codeine
    • Analgesic
  3. Name a example, trade name, and classification from the mineral drug source
    • Zinc
    • Zinc Oxide Ointment
    • Sunscreen
  4. Name a example, trade name, and classification of a drug from a animal source
    • Pancreas of a hog
    • Insulin
    • Antidiabetic hormone
  5. Name a example, trade name, and classification from a synthetic source
    • meperidine
    • demerol
    • analgesic
  6. Name a example, trade name, and classification of a drug from a DNA source
    • Insulin
    • none
    • Hormone
  7. Has alllowed for the production of biological active substances that are in the body and can be used to treat certain diseases
    Recombinant DNA
  8. Refers to the alteration of genes done in a lab setting
    genetic engineering
  9. Used to slow the progession of HIV. Not a cure
  10. Used to treat malignancies and management of AIDS related Kaposi sarcome
    Interferon/Roferon A
  11. Used to slow progression of demetia in Alzehimer's patients. Removed from market because of toxicity
  12. Name of two drugs that treat more than one disease at a time. This drug treats blood pressure and cholestrol
    Caduet (combines Norvasc and Lipitor)
  13. Name the 4 drug processes
    • Absorption
    • Distribution
    • Metabolism
    • Execretion
  14. Passage of substance through a membrane into the bloodstream
  15. Moving from the bloodstream into the tissues and fluids of the body
  16. Physical and chemical alterations that a substance undergoes in the body
  17. Eliminating waste products of drug metabolism from the body
  18. Variables that affect the speed and efficiency of drugs being processed by the body
    • Age
    • Weight
    • Gender
    • Psychological State
  19. The action of two drugs working together in which one helps the other simultaneously for an effect that neither could produce alone
  20. the action of two drugs in which one prolongs or multiplies the effect of the other
  21. The opposing action of two drugs in which one decreases or cancels out the effect of the other
  22. The amount of drug given for a particular therapeutic or desired effect
  23. Initial high dose used to quickly elevate the level of the drug in the blood
    loading dose
  24. Dose required to keep the drug blood level at a steady state in order to maintain the desired effect
    Maintenance dose
  25. Amount of a drug that will produce harmful side effects or symptoms of poisoning
    Toxic dose
  26. Dose that causes death
    Lethal dose
  27. Dose that is customarily given adjusted according to variations from the norm
    Therapeutic dose
  28. Name the 2 most common routes of adminstration
    Enteral/ GI Tract

  29. The doctor's choice of a particulat route of administration of a drug may depend on
    • desired effects
    • absorption qualities
    • drug supply
  30. Immune response (allergy) to a drug may be of varying degrees
  31. Severe, possible fatal, allergic response
    Anaphylactic reaction
  32. Refers to the type of prepatation in which the drug is supplied
    Drug form
  33. Refers to any route not involving the GI tract, including injection, topical and inhalation routes
  34. Injectable drug form. Drug is suspended and shaken, then dissolved in a sterile vehicle
  35. Injectable drug form. Dry particles of drugs. the powder itself cannot be injected, it must be muxed with a diluting solution
  36. Term used for drugs that are powder that must be mixed with a solution before administering
  37. A small volume of drug injected into a peripheral saline lock, attached to a vein.

    Where it is manually pushed through
    IV Push
  38. A large volume of fluids, often with drugs added, that infuses continually into a vein.

    Slow push through
    IV infusion/IV drip
  39. A drug diluted in moderate volume, usually using 2 bags, of fluid for intermittent infusion at specified intervals.
    IV Piggyback
  40. Injected into the fatty layer of tissue below the skin by positioning the needle and syringe at a 45-degree angle
  41. Injected just beneath the skin, by positioning the needle bevel up and a 15 degree angle
  42. Injected into a catheter in the epidural space of the spinal canal
  43. Name the less common parenteral routes
    • Intraosseous-- Marrow of long bones
    • Intraventricular-- heart ventricle
    • Intraspinal-- Subarachnoid/CSF surrounding spinal cord
    • Intracapsular-- capsule of a joint
  44. The second route for fast acting
  45. Substances low in lipid solubility are absorbed best when given by other means than
    GI Tract
  46. Severe hypersensitivity response could require CPR, may be fatal
  47. Immune response to a drug that may be of varying degrees
  48. Opposite effect from drug that was expected
  49. Unique, unusual response to a drug
  50. Effect from maternal drug administration that causes the development of physical defects in a fetus
  51. Dermal patches are used to treat
    • Angina
    • Pain
    • Motion Sickness
  52. Most common classification of drug given rectally
    • Sedatives
    • Anti Pyretics
    • Antiemetics
  53. Type of preparation in which the drug is supplied
    Drug form
  54. GTT
  55. Minerals used to prepare drugs
    Iron, sulfur, potassium, silver and gold
  56. Cellular changes or drug actions that are followed by physiological changes
    Effects of drugs
  57. Sedative and barbiturates are given in combination, resulting in depression
    undesirable syngerism
  58. In the liver, a drug is broken down and altered to more soluble by proguts so it is more easily execreted by kidneys
  59. How are drug effects generally categorized
    • Systemic--whole body
    • Local--certain area
  60. An affinity or attraction of a drug to a specific organ or cell
    Selective distribution
  61. Drugs slightly acidic are absorbed well with
    stomach mucosa
  62. Drugs of an alkaline pH are absorbed better through the alkaline enviroment of
    small intestine
  63. Drug effects that reach widespread areas of the body are known as
  64. Route of administeration that allows for slower consistent drug administration over time
  65. Any chemical substance ingested or applied on the body for the purpose of affecting body function is called
    a drug
  66. Historically, these were the primary source of drugs
  67. Medications contradicted for lactating mothers pass through this into breast milk
    cell membrane
  68. Drug compounds are produced from artificial rather than natural substances
  69. Used in patients participating in a blind study
  70. If a patients circulation and renal function is inadequate, what effect does it have
    Dangerously low blood pressure
  71. Sweet, flavored liquid drug form
  72. Liquid drug that contains oils and fats in water
  73. Local soothing effect on throat or mouth
  74. Disk of compressed drug
  75. Per Os
  76. Liquid drug that forms with alcohol base
  77. Treatment for anaphalactic reaction
    • CPR,
    • Epinephrine
    • Corticosteroid
    • Antihistamine
  78. The number that represents the diameter of the needle

    Ranges from 18-27
  79. A glass container sealed at top by rubber stopper
  80. Delivers drug over a extended period of time
    Sustain- released
  81. Tablet with special coating that resists disintegration by gastric juices because outside layer is
  82. Drug doses are calculated according to
    a patient's weight
  83. A cardiac drug that must be given cautiously because it can cause toxicity
  84. What can be used to make a drug treatment for growth disorders
    The pituitary gland from a cow
  85. Increased effect of a drug demostrated when repeated doses accumulate in the body that can buil to a dangerous or toxic level
  86. Dibucaine ointment applied rectally which reduces hemorrhoidal pain
    Describes a local effect of a drug
  87. Doses that causes death
  88. Amount of drug that will produce harmful side effects or symptoms of poisoning
  89. Name the GI routes
    • Oral
    • Nasogastric
    • Rectal
  90. Name the Parenteral Routes
    • Sublingual
    • Injection
    • Topical
    • Inhalation
  91. Drug contained within a gelatin-type container
  92. liquid drug form in which the drug is totally and evely dissloved,
    Appearance is clear, tather than cloudy or settled
  93. Drug suspended in a substance, such as cocoa butter, that melts at body temperture
  94. Drug suspended in solution to be administered as an enema
    Enema solution
  95. A semisolid preparation containg a drug, for external application
    Cream or ointment
  96. A liquid preparation applied externally for treatment of skin disorders. Should be patted, not rubbed on skin
  97. Preparation for external use that is rubbed on the skin as a couterirritant, to mask pain in the skin or muscles
  98. Skin patch containing drug molecules that can be absorbed through the skin at varying rates to promote a consistent blood level
    Dermal patch
  99. Drugs in sterile liquids to be applied by drops
    Ear, eye, nose drops
  100. Used for ophthalmic use only
    eye ointment
  101. The 3 most common disposable syringes
    • hypodermic
    • TB
    • insulin