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Scientists thought that all matter was composed of?
Earth, Air, Fire, Water
"Atom" means ....
Classified atoms by atomic mass ... Hooke and Eye Theory
Created 1st periodic table ... Arranged atoms by increasing mass
J.J. Thomson Atom?
Plum pudding theory ... Plum = (-) Pudding = (+)
Nuclear theory... Nucleus is in center and positive
Atom is a mini solar system
3 fundamental particles, their charges and weights?
- Proton (+) 1.673 x 10^-27 kg
- Neutron (nuetral) 1.675 x 10^-27 kg
- Electron (-) 9.1 x 10^-31 kg
Electron binding energy is strongest in which shell?
Name all the shells starting with innermost...
K L M N O P
The shell number of an atom is called?
Principle Quantum Number (n)
The maximum number of electrons in a shell is determined by the formula...
An atom is stable when there are ___ electrons in the outer shell.
Protons and nuetrons have smaller sub-n7clear structures called ____ held together by ____.
Quarks / Gluons
The # of electrons in the outter shell is = to it's ____ + ____ on the periodic table. This number also determines the ____ of an atom
Group and period ... Valence
Atomic # =
(Z) / # of protons (lower number)
Atomic Mass = ?
(A) / # of protons and nuetrons (upper number)
4 atomic configurations and differences?
- Isotope - Same atomic #, different mass
- Isobar - Different atomic #, same mass
- Isomer - Same atomic #, same mass
- Isotone - Same # nuetrons, different # protons
Difference between molecule and compound?
- M - 2 or more atoms join
- C - A molecule w/ 2 different elements
What was formerly used for external beam radiotherapy?
What was used for beta therapy and was a strong gamma emitter?
What are the 2 types of bonds and their differences?
- Covalent - Outter orbital electrons shared
- Ionic - Electrons gained or removed completely...can lose or gain a (-) charge
Radioactive atoms are called...
What is radioactive decay?
A nucleus emitting particles or disentegrating in an attempt to become stable
Sources of radioisotopes?
Radioisotopes decay by?
Alpha or beta emission
Explain alpha/betta emission...
- -more violent
- -2 Protons and 2 Nuetrons joined together
- -Loses 2 units of (+) charge and 4 units of mass
- -More common than Alpha
- -Electron particle ejected
- -Atomic # incr. by 1
- -Nuetron converts into a proton
2 types of ionizing radiation?
Speed of light = ?
3 x 10^8 m/s
The only difference between xrays and gamma rays is their? Explain
- Xrays - produced outside nucleus in E Shells
- Gamma - produced from nucleus of radioisotope
Half life formula?
Quantity x (1/2) ^ (# of cycles)
Define electromagnetic energy
Form of energy emitted from an object in the form of electronic or magnetic waves traveling through space
3 other names for a photon?
- -Atom of light
- -Small bundle of energy
Who demonstrated visible light has electronic and magnetic properties?
James Clerk Maxwell
What are the electromagnetic energy properties?
Electromagnetic spectrum ranges from?
10 to 10^24 Hz
Photon wavelengths range from?
10^7 to 10^-16
Wavelength and Frequency are ____ proportional.
When a photon changes course this is called?
White light is refracted because?
It is composed of photons w/ different wavelengths ranging from 400 to 700 nm.
2 types of invisible light
What is infrared light?
-Photons w/ wavelengths longer than visible light, but shorter than microwaves (radiant heat)
What is UV light?
In emission spectrum between visible light and ionizing radiation...
Responsible for molecular interactions that cause sunburns
Facts about RF
Large section is used by EMS
Low energy / Long wavelengths
Ham Radio --> 10m or 30m wavelengths
A.M. Radio --> 100m wavelengths
Higher energy produces ____ frequencies and ____ wavelengths...
Higher / Shorter
3 Radiologically important regions?
- 1.) Visible Light
- 2.) Xrays
- 3.) RF
Types of light and xray absorption?
- Light - Transmission, attenuation, absorption
- Xray - Radiolucent, Radiopaque
Photon energy is ____ proportional to photon frequency?
Quantum theory formula?
1 Joule = ?
6.24 x 10^18 eV
What is pair production?
The conversion of energy into mass