BIO CELL 371 E1 C1

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shockwave
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BIO CELL 371 E1 C1
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2012-02-28 10:18:57
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BIO CELL 371 E1 C1
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BIO 371 E1 C1 CELL LAB GSU FEB 2012
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  1. disease which prevents blood from clotting.
    Hemophilia
  2. a blood cancer in which the number of white blood cells increases at an abnormally fast rate.
    Leukemia
  3. List 4 things that blood helps deliver or pick up in the body.
    • a) Chemicals
    • b) Nutrients
    • c) Wastes
    • d) Gases
  4. What are the four main blood types?
    • a) A
    • b) AB
    • c) B
    • d) O
  5. WHAT IS IT?
    non-living, yellow, liquid part of blood. It is 92% water with the remaining 8% made up of blood proteins, nutrients, salts, and waste chemicals.
    PLASMA
  6. IF YOU HAVE TYPE A BLOOD, WHAT ANTIGEN/ANTIBODY DO YOU HAVE?
    • BASOPHILS
    • ALLERGIC REACTIONS
    • <1%
    • 12-15µm
    • LIFETIME UNKNOWN
    • ingesting foreign particles and produce heparin and histamine (chemicals which induce inflammation)
  7. AVIAN BLOOD
    • Eosinophils.
    • 1-6%
    • 10-12µm
    • PARACITIC & ALLERGIC REACTIONS.
    • 8-12 DAYS CIRCULATE FOR 4-5 HOURS.
    • responsible for combatinginfection and parasites invertebrates. They also control mechanisms associated withallergy andasthma.
    • Neutrophils.
    • 54-62%
    • SIZE: 10-12µm
    • TARGET BACTERIA & FUNGI
    • LAST ONLY FROM 6 HOURS TO A FEW DAYS IN SPLEEN OR TISSUES.
    • LYMPHOCYTE
    • VOLUME IN ADULTS: 25-33%
    • SIZE: 7-8µm
    • NATURAL KILLER CELLS (BOTH B & T)
    • B CELL: VARIOUS PATHOIGENS
    • T CELL:CD4 HELPER & CD8. VIRUS INFECTED TUMORS AND CELLS.
    • LIFETIME: WEEKS TO YEARS
    • MONOCYTE...THINK KIDNEY SHAPE
    • 2-8% IN ADULTS
    • SIZE: 14-17µm
    • LIFETIME:HOURS TO DAYS.
    • MIGRATE FROM BLOOD STREAM TO TISSUES AND DIFFERENTIATE INTO TISSUE RESIDENT MACROPHAGES OR DENDRITIC CELLS.
  8. NAME THE 3 GRANULOCYTES
    • Neutrophil
    • Eosinophil
    • Basophil
  9. IDENTIFICATION:
    BASOPHIL
  10. IDENTIFICATION:
    EOSINOPHIL
  11. IDENTIFICATION:
    NEUTROPHIL
  12. IDENTIFICATION:
    LYMPHOCYTE
  13. LEEUWENHOEK VIEWED WHAT AND WHEN WITH MICROSCOPE?
    • PROTOZOANS
    • 1665
  14. THE FIELD DIAGRAM OR IRIS IS PART OF WHAT STRUCTURE OF THE MICROSCOPE?
    THE ILLUMINATOR, PART OF THE BASE.
  15. CONTROLS THE SIZE OF THE ILLUMINATED FIELD OF VIEW.
    FIELD DIAGRAM OR FIELD IRIS.
  16. AN ADJUSTABLE LENS SYSTEM THAT FOCUSES LIGHT ON THE OBJECT.
    SUBSTAGE CONDENSER.
  17. ______ ________ CONTROLS THAT DIAMETER OF THE LIGHT BEAM ENTERING THE CONDENSER.
    IRIS DIAHPRAGM.
  18. THE_______ LENS PRODUCES AN ENLARGED AND INVERTED PROJECTION OF THE OBJECT.
    THE REAL IMAGE.
    OBJECTIVE
  19. THE OCULAR LENS PRODUCES WHAT TYPE OF IMAGE?
    FINAL OR VIRTUAL IMAGE.
  20. DEFINE TOTAL MAGNIFICATION
    • OBJECTIVE LENS POWER * OCULAR LENS POWER.
    • EX: 100 * 10 = 1000X
  21. THE SMALLEST DISTANCEBY WHICH 2 NEIGHBOURING POINTS CAN BE SEPERATED AND STILL BE DISCERNED AS SEPERATE ENTITIES.
    LIMIT OF RESOLUTION. (l.r.)
  22. WHAT IS THE ABBE EQUASION?
    • 0.61* LAMDA
    • l.r. = -----------------
    • N.A.
  23. DEFINE NUMERICAL APTURE
    A MEASURE OF THE CONE ANGLE OF LIGHT ENTERING THE OBJECTIVE LENS.
  24. WHAT DOES LAMDA REPRESENT IN THE ABBE EQUASION?
    • THE WAVELENGHT OF LIGHT USED TO VIEW THE OBJECT.
    • GREEN FILTER = 550nm = LAMDA
  25. AS THE LIMIT OF RESOULTION _________ AS THE N.A. INCREASES. THUS A _______ N.A. MEANS WHAT?
    • DECREASES.
    • THE LARGER THE N.A. THE GREATER IS THE RESOLVING POWER.
  26. DEFINE THE DEFRACTION PATTERN?
    THE FRINGE OF LIGHT AND DARK RINGS AROUND OBJECT BORDERS.
  27. THE HIGHEST QUALITY OBJECTIVES HAVE A N.A. OF WHAT?
    1.40
  28. THE CONE ANGLE OF THE N.A. IS CONTROLED BY WHAT?
    • THE IRIS DIAPHRAGM OF THE SUBSTAGE CONDENSER.
    • THINK THE LITTLE LEVER IN FRONT OF THE STAGE.
  29. OPENING THE ________ ______ INCREASE THE CONE ANGLE OF LIGHT.
    • CONDENSER IRIS.
    • THINK THE OF THE STRUCTURE JUST BEHIND THE LITTLE LEVER IN FRONT OF THE STAGE. IT'S UNDER THE STAGE.
  30. T OR F ?
    THE CONDENSER IRIS MUST BE SUFFICIENTLY OPEN FOR THE WORKING N.A. TO EQUAL THE N.A. ENGARVED ON THE BARREL OF THE OBJECTIVE, WHICH IS THE HIGHEST VALUE ATTAINABLE FOR THAT LENS.
    TRUE.
  31. THE REFRACTIVE INDEX OF IMMERSION OIL IS APPROX. THE SAME AS GLASS. WHY?
    SO THAT LIGHT IS NOT REFRACTIVE AS IT PASSES FROM THE OBJECT TO THE OBJECTIVE.
  32. T OR F ?
    ALL LENS HAVE ABERRATIONS?
    TRUE
  33. NAME AND DEFINE THE 2 TYPES OF LEN ANERRATIONS.
    • CHROMATIC..COLOUR FRINGES AROUND OBJECT.
    • SPHERICAL...FUZZY..LINES CURVED.
  34. HOW DOES ONE CORRECT LEN ABERRATIONS?
    • TWO WAYS:
    • ACHROMAT OBJECTIVES.
    • CHROMATIC...FIX BLUE AND RED
    • SPHERICAL....GREEN

    CURVATURE OF FIELD...MAKE FLAT FIELD OR "PLAN"
  35. DEFINE MAXIUM USEFUL MAGINIFCATION.
    THE LIMIT THAT INCREASED MAGINIFCATION CAN IMPROVE OUR ABILITY TO RESOLVE DETAIL.
  36. 2 BASIC STEPS OF KOHLER ILLUMINATION
    • 1. FOCUS THE BULB FILLAMENT AT THE PLANE OF THE CONDENSER IRIS.
    • 2. FOCUSING THE IMAGE OF THE FIELD IRIS AT THE PLANE OF THE OBJECT.
  37. KOHLER ILLUMINATION. WHAT STEPS ARE DONE WHERE?
    • 1. FACTORY
    • 2. YOU...ADJUST HEIGHT OF SUBSTAGE CONDENSER
  38. ___________ IS CONTROLED BY THE CONDENSER IRIS.
    CONTRAST.
  39. GENERALLY, THE CONDENSER IRIS SHOULD BE OPEN ABOUT________ OF THE BACK FOCAL PLANE OF THE OBJECT IS FILLED WITH LIGHT.
    2/3
  40. WHY USE A GREEN LIGHT FILTER.
    • NEARLY COMPLEMENTARY TO THE RED AND PURPLE HUES OF MANY BIO STAINS----> THUS MORE CONTRAST.
    • ALSO HUMAN EYES ARE MORE SENSITIVE TO GREEN LIGHT, OBJECTS ARE CORRECTED FOR ABERRATIONS IN THIS SPECTERIAL REGION.
  41. WHAT IS THE NEUTRAL DENSITY FILTERS DO?
    REDUCE LIGHT INTENSITY WITHOUT ALTERING THE COLOR QUALITY OF THE ILLUMINATOR
  42. RIGHTNESS IS CONTROLLED HOW?
    BY THE TRANSFORMER SETTING AND BY NEUTRAL DENSITY FILTERS.
  43. DEFINE CONCOMITANT
    Adjective:Naturally accompanying or associated.

    • Noun:A phenomenon that naturally accompanies or follows
    • something.
  44. THE BRIGHTNESS SHOULD NEVER BE REDUCED IN TWO WAYS, NAME THEM AND WHY.
    CLOSING THE CONDENSERIRIS OR BY LOWERING THE SUBSTAGE CONDENSER.

    A CONCOMITANT LOSS OF RESOLUTION.
  45. HOW TO EXTEND BULB LIFE. 2 WAYS.
    • 1. LOWEST TRANSFORMER SETTING
    • 2. NO ON/OFF
  46. DEFINE PARFOCAL AND PARCENTRAL?
    PARFOCAL: CHANGE OBJECTIVE AND FOCUS BASICALLY DOESN'T CHANGE.

    PARCENTRAL: CHANGE OBJECTIVE AND CENTER DOESN'T CHANGE.
  47. DEFINE PARFOCAL
    THE FOCUS IS NOT CHANGED APPRECIABLY WHEN THE OBJECTIVE IS CHANGED.
  48. DEFINE PARCENTRAL
    THE CENTER OF THE FIELD DOESN'T CHANGE WHEN THE OBJECT IS CHANGED.
  49. T OR F ?
    THE OIL IMMERSION OBJECT IS NOT AS SENSITIVE TO COVER SLIP THICKNESS AND CAN EVEN BE USED WITHOUT ONE.
    TRUE.
  50. 19. When the letter e slide is viewed with the microscope, it appears
    A. right side up.
    B. upside down.
    C. upside down and backwards.
    D. right side up and backwards.
    C. upside down and backwards.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. If you placed an "e" in the slide of a microscope, and moved the slide to the left, in what direction would the e appear to move?
    TO THE RIGHT
  52. What part of a microscope holds the objective lenses?
    NOSEPIECE
  53. HOW DO YOU INCREASE DEPTH OF FIELD?
    • CLOSE THE APERATURE OF THE IRIS DIAPHRAGM.
    • This device is part of the substage condenser. It serves to control the angle of the cone of light emerging from the top of the condenser. When adjusted so that the back lens of the objective, as viewed through the eyepiece tube, is just filled with light, the full numerical aperture (NA) of the objective is being utilized.
  54. An organism viewed with the high power objective in place would be magnified ______ times.
    • 400X
    • LOW..4X
    • MED...10X
    • HIGH..40X
    • THEN OIL!!!
  55. IF YOU WANT TO VIEW LIVING CELLS WHAT TYPE OF MICROSCOPY?
    PHASE CONTRAST
  56. THE STEREOSCOPIC DISSECTING MICROSCOPE HAS TWO DISTINCT ADVANTAGES OVER THE COMPOUND MICROSCOPE NAME THEM.
    Enables you to observe the objects that are too large or too thick to see with higher magnifications

    Observe objects in 3-D dimensions
  57. OBJECT IN SPECIMENT PREPARATION?
    • STRENGTHEN CELLULAR STRUCTURES.
    • DONE BY CROSS LINKING INTERMOLECULAR BONDS IN AQUEUS BUFFERED SOLUTIONS.
  58. FORMALDEHYDE AND GLUTARALDEHYDE FROM BONDS BETWEEN _________ OF ______.
    • AMINO ACIDS OF PROTEINS.
    • THINK NH3.....O2 OFF AND N2 ON.
  59. OSMIUM TETROXIDE (OsO4) CROSS LINKS WHAT?
    • FATTY ACIDS AT SITE OF DOUBLE BONDS.
    • ADVANTAGE...GOOD CONTRAST FOR VIEWING.

    • WORKS ON UNSATURATED (GOOD) (OILS)FATTY ACIDS.
    • SATURATED (BAD FOR YOU) (MEAT FAT/LARD) HAS NO DOUBLE BONDS.
  60. NAME 2 CHEMICALS USED TO FIX SPEICMENTS TO COPPER GRID AFTER METAL COATING.
    • URANYL ACETATE
    • LEAD CITRATE
  61. FREEZE ETCHING CORRESPOND TO THE PLANES OF THE CELL WHICH ARE LEAST RESISTANT. WHAT ARE THEY?
    THE HYDROPHOBIC LAYERS WITHIN THE CELL MEMBRANE.
  62. WHAT DO YOU USE TO VIEW FREEZE ETCHINGS?
    TEM
  63. NAME 2 TRACERS USED IN AUTORADIOGRAPHY
    • 3H
    • IODINE 125
  64. AUTORADIOGRAPHY TAGS NAME 4.
    WHAT AND HOW IS USED.
    • DNA: 3H-THYMIDINE
    • RNA: 3H-URIDINE
    • PROTEINS: TAG AMINO ACIDS
    • POLYSACCRIDES: TAGG MONOSACCRIDES
  65. WHAT METAL IS USED IN AUTORADIOGRAPHY?
    SILVER.
  66. HOW DO YOU PRODUCE A IMAGE IN AUDIORADIOGRAPHY?
    • DETECTION OF THE INCORPORATED ACTIVITY IS MADE BY REPLYING A PHOTOGRAPHIC EMULSION TO THE SECTION.
    • THE BETA PARTICLES EMITTED BY THE DISTINTERGATING RADIOACTIVE ATOMS LEAVE AN IMAGE ON THE EMULSION. THINK PHOTOGRAPH
  67. CLUTER COUNTER DETERMINE WHAT ARE HOW?
    • NUMBER AND VOLUME OF PARTICLES IN A SUSPENDED IN A ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTIVE DILUENT.
    • OPERATION DEPENDS ON RESTIANCE BETWEEN ELECTROLYTE AND PARTICLES SUSPENDED.
  68. CLUTER COUNTER, WHAT METAL IS IN THE ELECTRODES?
    PLATINUM
  69. T OR F ?
    WHEN USING A CLUTER COUNTER, YOU MUST HAVE A MIN AND MAX THRESHOLD RANGE.
    TRUE
  70. IF YOU USE A PLOTTER FOR THE OUTPUT OF THE OSCILLOSCOPE INA CLUTER COUNTER WHAT TYPE OF GRAPH IS PRODUCED?
    • SIZE DISTRIBUTION GRAPH.
    • SHOWS COUNTING AND SIZE INFO.
  71. IN AUTORADIOGRAPHY, A _________ ________ SERVES AS THE METERING DEVICE WHEN THE AUTOMATIC PLOTTER IS NOT USED.
    • MERCURY MANOMETER.
    • IT'S UNBALANCED BY A VACUUM PUMP AT FIRST, AS THE VACUUM IS REMOVED, IT BALACES ITSELF OUT PULLING PERCISE AMOUNT OF SUBSTRAE THRU ORIFACE...THUS TOUCHING THE START/STOP CONTACTS.
  72. AS CELLS FLOW THRU THE APERATURE IN THE SENSOR, RESISTANCE AND VOLTAGE ____ .
    WHY?
    • INCREASE.
    • OHM'S LAW.... V=(I)(R)
    • (I=CURRENT)
    • I = V/R
    • R=V/I
  73. THE PRINCIPALS OF COUNTING MAY BE SUMMERIZED HOW?
    • 1. DILUTION CONDUCTIVITY
    • 2. ELECTRICAL CURRENT
    • 3. VACUUM PUMP BALANCE
    • 4. VOL OF MERCURY
    • 5. STOPCOCK. FLOW.PLATINUM ELECTRODE 100µm
    • 6. THRESHOLD. MIN PEEK.
  74. IN A CLUTER COUNTER, BLOOD IS DILUTED WITH WHAT AND WHY.
    WHAT PRINCIPAL DOES IT CORRELATE WITH?
    • ISOTONIC SALINE.(GOOD CONDUCTOR)
    • 1ST. PRINCIPAL..
  75. IN CLUTER COUNTER, THE HEIGHT OF THE _______ ______ OR SPIKE IS PROPORTIONAL TO THE ______ OF THE CELLS BEING COUNTED .
    VOLTAGE PULSE IS PROPORTIONAL TO THE SIZE.

    THINK "LAWN": EACH BLADE IS A DIFFERENT SIZE. HEIGHT WOUL BE THE NUMBER OF CELLS.
  76. THE VOLUME OF MERCURY IN THE MANOMETER FROM START TO FINISH ELECTRODES EQUALS WHAT?
    WHAT DOES IT MEAN?
    • 0.5mL
    • IT MEANS THAT 0.5mL OF CELL SUSPENSION IS CORRESPONDINGLY PULLED THRU THE APERTURE.
    • TAKES 13-15 SECONDS.
  77. PRINCIPAL 5.....OPENING THE ________ OF THE APERATURE _________ THE ______ AND PULLS THE CELLS THRU.
    • STOPCOCK
    • UNBALANCES
    • MERCURY
  78. IF YOUR LOOKING ATA HISTOGRAM OF A CLUTER COUNTER, WHAT TYPE OF DATA?
    A QUANTITATIVE DATA SET ON THE CELL MORPHOLOGY THAT CAN BE USED TO EVALUATE THE QUANITY AND HEALTH OF CELLS IN THE SAMPLE.
  79. THE LIMIT OF RESOLUTION OF THE NAKE EYE IS WHAT ?
    0.1mm
  80. THE LIMIT OF RESOLUTION OF A HIGH QUALITY MICROSCOPE IS WHAT?
    0.2 µm
  81. IF THE LIMIT OF RESOLUTION FOR YOUR MICROSCOPE IS 0.2 µm AND 2 DOTS ARE 0.1µm APART, WHAT WILL THEY APPEAR LIKE?
    AS A SINGLE DOT. YOUR LIMIT OF RESOLUTION IS TO LOW TO SEE THE SPACE THAT SEPERATES THEM.

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