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episodically events such as severe climate changes, astroids etc that cause extinctions and other odd events
dominates the day to day process
(uniform natural laws geological processes) slow changes throught time. Cycles
the present is the key to the past
- The study of layered rocks.
- Stenos law basis of stratigraphy
Principle of Superpostion
oldest rocks are on bottom and youngest rocks are on top
principle of original horizontality
sediments deposited in flat orizontal layers
principle of original lateral continuity
sediments are depostited over a large area in a continuous sheet
Desiccation- drying or mummification
best for hard sells, bones, teeth. Rapid Burial
- 2 flat beds then erosion creates a gap in time
- unconformity is younger than the rock that is erroded
natural laws both past and present
principle of cross cutting relationships
- fault or whatever is youngers than the rock it cuts.
- sediments rocks are younger than the fault which cuts them.
Principle of inclusion
- fragments of the eroded rock overlie the unconformity. these are called clasts or inclusions
- the pieces of gravel are older than the beds in which they are found.
- fragment broken off during intrusion and fallen into magma(igneous rock). it is a fragment of the surrounding rock.
- xenolith is older than the igneous rock which contains it
- deposited by a hot mineral rich ocean
- formed the cores of mountain ranges
- deposited when earth became suitable for living
- sandstone, shales, coals
loose gravel, sand, clay lay on transition rocks
- produces more offspring that can survive
- morphology(form and structure)
- physiology(organs and functions
- compete for food and habitat
- traits good survive adn pass those traits