Geology exam 1 vocab

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pinkbubblegum3
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Geology exam 1 vocab
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2012-02-21 19:01:56
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Geology exam vocab
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Geology exam 1 vocab
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  1. catastrophism
    episodically events such as severe climate changes, astroids etc that cause extinctions and other odd events
  2. Uniformitarianism
    dominates the day to day process

    (uniform natural laws geological processes) slow changes throught time. Cycles

    the present is the key to the past
  3. Stratigraphy
    • The study of layered rocks.
    • Stenos law basis of stratigraphy
  4. Principle of Superpostion
    oldest rocks are on bottom and youngest rocks are on top
  5. principle of original horizontality
    sediments deposited in flat orizontal layers
  6. principle of original lateral continuity
    sediments are depostited over a large area in a continuous sheet
  7. Fossil Preservation
    Desiccation- drying or mummification

    best for hard sells, bones, teeth. Rapid Burial
  8. unconformity
    • 2 flat beds then erosion creates a gap in time
    • unconformity is younger than the rock that is erroded
  9. Actualism
    natural laws both past and present
  10. principle of cross cutting relationships
    • fault or whatever is youngers than the rock it cuts.
    • sediments rocks are younger than the fault which cuts them.
  11. Principle of inclusion
    • fragments of the eroded rock overlie the unconformity. these are called clasts or inclusions
    • the pieces of gravel are older than the beds in which they are found.
  12. xenolith
    • fragment broken off during intrusion and fallen into magma(igneous rock). it is a fragment of the surrounding rock.
    • xenolith is older than the igneous rock which contains it
  13. primitive rocks
    • deposited by a hot mineral rich ocean
    • formed the cores of mountain ranges
  14. transition rocks
    • deposited when earth became suitable for living
    • sandstone, shales, coals
  15. Alluvium
    loose gravel, sand, clay lay on transition rocks
  16. natural selection
    • produces more offspring that can survive
    • morphology(form and structure)
    • physiology(organs and functions
    • compete for food and habitat
    • traits good survive adn pass those traits

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