Bio Ch. 7 Respiration

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tjtolman
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136903
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Bio Ch. 7 Respiration
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2012-02-26 20:18:01
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Chapter 7, test 2
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  1. Equation for Respiration:
    C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O
  2. Cellular Aerobic Respiration:
    (2 main categories of oranisms based on how they get energy)
    • Autotrophs- (self) Plants and other green organisms
    • Suns energy ---->Chemical energy

    • Heterotrophs- Get energy from others (95% of species are hetertropsh)
    • Chemical energy-----> chemical energy
  3. What do organisms do w/ all chemical energy?
    • Used to make ATP
    • a) movement allowed
    • b) drive edergonic reactions
  4. Where do cells get ATP?
    • GLUCOSE----->Low energy electrons (leftover)
    • GLUCOSE------>ATP
  5. Low energy electrons go to:
    a)oxygen, make H20 = cellular aerobic respiration(eukaryotes)

    b)inorganic molecule besides oxygen =anaerobic respiration (oxygen isn't always availble)

    c)organic molecule = fermentation
  6. Cellular aerboic respiration:
    C6H1206 + 602 ---------------->
    -----36ADP+36P (36ATP)----->

    6C02+6H20 = breakdown
  7. Catabolism:
    set of metabolic pathways that break down molecules into smaller units and release energy
  8. Anabolism:
    set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units. These reactions require energy.
  9. Glucose stored as:
    • Animal: Glycogen
    • Plants: Startch (amylose)
  10. What is required at end or cellular aerboci respiration:
    O2
  11. Sequential Breakdown of Glucose:
    • 1: Glycolysis (converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate)
    • -Does not take oxygen
    • -Occurs in cytoplasm

    • Glucose-------->2pyruvates
    • 6C -------->2-3C
    • when 6C breaks cell gets: 2ATP's and 2NADH's

    • 2. Cellular aerobic respiration:
    • a) pyruvate (3C--->2C's and 1C(CO2) (some NADH is given off)

    b) 2C's---> 2-1C's (CO2)

    • c) At this point have some:
    • ATP -->Used
    • NADH and FADH2 --->used to make ATP---->ELECTRON TRANSPORT SYSTEM

    Oxygen used to make H20
  12. Glycolysis:
    • -outside mitochondria/in cytoplasm
    • -requries 2 ATP's become activated & split
    • -reactions make ATP/NADH = Piruvate
    • 6C(glucose)--->2-3C(pyruvates)

    • Uses 2 ATP's
    • Gets 4 ATP
    • Gets 2 NADH
    • Total yield(what cell gets after glucose is broken down): 2 ATP and 2 NADH

    • -Only captured 3.5% of energy in glucose captured.
    • -Evolved very early, ancient process (all living things)
    • -Exists w/o Oxygen
  13. Aerobic Respiration:
    • -in mitochondria
    • -oxidation of pyruvate (pyruvate oxidation)

    3C (2pyruvates)--(CoA)--->2C(acetyle COA) +1C (CO2)

    When 2 pyruvates breakdown-->2NADH created.
  14. Kreb's Cycle
    • -1930's
    • -Occurs in matrix of mitochondria
  15. Made in Kreb's Cycle:
    • 3 NADH
    • 1ATP
    • 1FADH2
    • Overall yield:
    • Some ATP's ---> cell can use directly
    • Some NADH's/FADH2 (must be used to make ATP by electron transport chain)
  16. Electron Transport Chain:
    • Series of electron carriers in the inner mitochondria membrane.
    • 1)Electrons move
    • 2)Protons Pumped
    • 3)ATP is then made (atp sythase)
  17. Chemiosmosis
    generation of ATP by the movement of hydrogen ions across a membrane during cellular respiration.

    • cell gets:
    • 1NADH ---> 3 ATP's
    • 1FADH2 ----> 2 ATP's
  18. Total yield 1 glucose molecule:
    • theoretical yield of 36 ATP
    • actual yield is 30 ATP

    efficiency = 32% of energy from glucose is captured. (rest is lost as heat)

    • *other starting molecules (food ..)
    • *regulation of process (electron transport chain & chemiosmosis)
  19. Fermentation:
    low energy electrons go to ORGANIC MOLECULES

    • a) animal cell type - glucose is split 2 pyruvates (2ATP's made)
    • Need to have NAD+ regenerated
    • 2 lactates to continue

    • b)type in plant & yeast cells
    • Starts off glucose ---> Pyruvates
    • Need NAD+ to continue
    • 2ethanol allows for production of NAD+
    • CO2 from pyruvate --->Ethanol
    • RESULTS in 2 ATP's
  20. Evolution of major metabolic pathways:
    (likely sequence, hypothesis)
    • 1.) use of organic molecules in ocean
    • 2.) glycolysis - partial breakdown of glucose - get a little ATP. No O2 use (anaerobic)
    • 3.) Photosythesis - makes sugars (ATP) , releases oxygen
    • 4.) Aerobic respiration (uses O2) - produced by photosythesis
  21. Stages of aerobic respiration:
    • 1.) Glycolysis
    • 2.) Oxidation of Pyruvate
    • 3.) Krebs Cycle
    • 4.) Electron Transport Chain
  22. Structur of NAD+
  23. Final electron receptor in anaerobic:
    Inorganic molecule
  24. Final electron receptor in aerobic:
    Oxygen
  25. Final electron receptor in fermentation:
    organic molecule
  26. STAGE 1. GLYCOLYSIS
    • requires 2 ATP
    • occurs outside mitochondria in cytoplasm
    • does not require oxygen
    • 3 products: 2 pyruvates (2-3C's), 4 ATP's, 2NADH's
    • 2 ATP and 2NADH continue on (uses 2 atps)
  27. Why is recycling NADH important:
    must be recycled into NAD+ to continue w/ glycolysis(respiration)
  28. STAGE 2: Oxidtion of pyruvate:
    pyryvate the end process of glycolysis is oxidized to acetly-coA

    The 2-3C (pyruvates from gylcolysis) + CoA --> 2C(acetyl-CoA) + 1C(CO2)

    When the 2 pyruvates breakdown--> 2NADH is byproduct
  29. STAGE 3: Krebs Cycle
    • occurs in matrix
    • electrons are removed from AcetlyCoA
    • Acetyl-CoA combines w/ 4C (2C+4C = 6C)
    • Goal= NAD+
    • 2ATP generated per glucose molecule (used directly)
    • yields 6NADH total (3per pyruvate) and 2 FADH (1 per pyruvate) -- need to make ATP by electron transport chain.
  30. STAGE 4 Electron Transport Chain:
    • Electron carriers in the inner mitochondria membrane
    • Energy from electrons is harvested as they pass through a chain of membrane proteins and used to pump protons, which creates concentration gradient drving ATP sythethesis through ATP synthase.

    As electrons travel down chain a gradient is formed

    3 complexes of proteins pump protons... proton travels to ATP synthase to make ATP

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