Geology chp 8

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Geology chp 8
2012-02-22 00:54:51
geology chp

geology chp 8
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  1. Banded iron formations
    • bands of dark red and light grey rust.
    • red=iron oxide
    • grey=precipitaed quartz
  2. Photosynthesis
    bacteria that splits carbon dioxide into carbon and free oxygen
  3. Photo chemical dissociation
    break H20 in hydrogen and Oxygen
  4. ozone layer
    filters ultraviolet radiation and prevents dissociation
  5. outgassing
    water vapor released from rocks. Occured first billion years of earth. Heat does it.
  6. Meteorites
    • survive heat and reach the ground.
    • Are astroid fragments
  7. Stony-iron meteorites
    • least abundant
    • made of silicate minerals and iron nickel
  8. Iron Meteorites
    iron nickel. Probably from asteroids large enough to have metallic cores
  9. Ordinary Chondrites
    • most abundent
    • 4.56 billion years old. Archean
    • contain chondrules-which are solidfied molten droplets
  10. Carbonanceous chondrites
    • early carbon blocks for earth
    • may have supplied organic building blocks for life
  11. Solar wind
    stream of radiation from the sun
  12. protoplanets
    • once accretion has happen(particles coming together but not condensed yet)
    • giving rise to planets
  13. accretion
    dust cloud particles pulled by gravity then clumps of matter formed. The larger one swept up other particles within its path
  14. solar hypothese
    • solor system origin
    • Immanuel Kant
    • shrinks and forms disk
    • most material concentrated to the center forming the sun
    • smaller particles form planets and moons and asteroid belts
  15. solar nebula
    rotating cloud of dust particles and gases
  16. precambrian
    • older than the cambrian period
    • divided into two=archeon eon and proterozioic=best dating with radiometric
  17. Preston Cloud
    proposed Hadean. the oldest
  18. canadian shield(SHIELDS)
    • Precambrians rocks/oldest parts of continents=shields
    • north american shield is=canadian shield
  19. hydrologic cycle
    water is recycled by evaporation and precipitation
  20. felsic
    • continental crust.
    • 4.4 billion years ago
    • decending slabs melted then some rose to surface and cooled
    • granite
  21. mafic
    • Oceanic crust
    • 4.5 billion years
    • melting of the upper mantle
  22. platforms
    • layer by sedimentary rocks
    • stable tectonic conditions
    • paleozoice, mesozoice, cenozoice
  23. craton
    platforms and shields of a continent
  24. Precambrian Provinces
    • divinding the canadian shield
    • based on age of rocks, characteritic folding style, directional trends of faults and folds
  25. magma ocean
    possible ocean during the archeon period
  26. komatites
    • rocks of the lunar highlands
    • formed from the cooling magma ocean
    • earliest time of plate techtonics
  27. partial melting
    • enormous amount of heat
    • maybe from the bombardment of meteorites
    • radioacitve isotopes
  28. differentiated
    • three layers core, mantle and crust
    • each layer different chemical composition and density
    • internally zoned
  29. lunar highlands
    Galileo saw them

    lighter hued craggy and heavily cratered regions of the moon
  30. Maria
    • darker areas of the moon
    • floors of immense basins with basaltic lava
  31. Granulite
    group of archean rocks

    granite rocks heat
  32. greenstones
    • composed of volcanic and metamorphosed sediments
    • basaltic extrusive igneous rocks
  33. ultramafic
    characteristic of greenstones
  34. lithotrophs
    they are microbes that live off energy from heat by radioactive decay
  35. Autotrophs
    • make own food
    • organism
    • uses externaml souce of energy to produce organic nutrients from simple inorganic chemicals
  36. plutoid
    past neptune, used to be pluto, spherical shape due to gravity
  37. heterotrophs
    • cant make own food
    • scavenge nutrients in their own enviornment
  38. anaerobic organism
    • does not require oxygen
    • germentation to obtain energy
  39. aerobic organisms
    • rely on oxygen to live
    • use oxygen to convert food into energy
  40. photoautotrophs
    use sunlight to power the dissociation of carbon dioxide into carbon and free oxygen
  41. hyperthermophiles
    • thrive in seawater
    • microbes
    • can live in deep fissures below vents
  42. chemosynthesis
    • oxidizing such inorganic substances as hydrogen sulfide or ammonia
    • possible first organisms chemotrophes
  43. prokaryotes
    lack membrane bounded nuclei and other membrane bounded organelles
  44. Eukaryote
    • cantains true nucleus enclosed with a nuclear membrance
    • well defined chromososomes and organelles
  45. stromatolites
    calcium carbonate having rounded branching or frondose shape. formed as a result of the metabolic marine algae
  46. molecular fossils
    organic molecules that only eukaryotes can synthesize
  47. organelles
    bodies capable of performing specific functions
  48. fusion
    pressure and temp within the suns core attained critical levels so hydrogen atoms began to fuse together