geography ch 7

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geography ch 7
2012-02-22 01:13:37

geography ch 7
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  1. agglomeration diseconomies
    the negative effects of urbanization and the local concentration of industry.
  2. Agglomeration Effects
    The cost advantages that accrue to individual firms because of their location among function- dividiual firms because of their location among function-dividual firms because of their location among functionally related activities.
  3. Ancillary Industries
    maintenance, and repair, recycling, security, and buisness services, for example.) togeather with initial growth , the growth in these linked industries helps to create a thresholdof activity large enough to attract (ancillary industries.)
  4. Autarky
    Insignificant contributions to the flow of imports and exports that constitute the geography of trade.
  5. Backwash Effects
    the negative impacts on a region ( or regions) of the economic growth of some other region.
  6. Carrying Capacity
    The maximum number of users that can be sustained, over the long term, by a given set of natural resources.
  7. Conglomerate corporations
    Companies that have diversified into various economic activities , usually through a process of mergers and acquisitions.
  8. Creative Destruction
    involves with drawal of investments from activities ( and regions) that yield low rates of profit in order to reinvest in new activities ( and new regions)
  9. Cumulative Causation
    The Spraling buildup of advantages that occurs in specific geographic settings as a result of the developement of external economies, agglomeration effects,and localization economies (Myrdral)
  10. debt trap
    Syndrome of always having to borrow in order to fund developement.
  11. deindustrialization
    A relative decline in industrial employment in core regions.
  12. Dependency
    High level of reliance by a country on foreighn enterprises, investment, or technology.
  13. Ecological Footprint
    Measure of the human pressures on the natural envirement from the consumption of renewable resources and the production of pollution indicating how much space a population needs comparing to what is available.
  14. Export Processing Zone (EPZ)s
    Small areas within which especially favorable investment and trading conditions are created by goverments in order to attract export - oriented industries.
  15. External economies
    Cost savings that result from circumstances beyond a firms own organization and methods of production.
  16. Flexible Production System
    ability of manufacturers to shift quickly and efficiently from one level of output to another, or from one product configuration to another.
  17. Fordism
    Principles for mass production based on assembly- line techniques, scientific management, mass consumption based on higher-wages, and spphisticated advertising techniques.
  18. Foreighn direct investment
    Total overseas buisness investments made by private companies.
  19. Geographical Path dependence
    Historical relationship between the present activities associated with a place and the past experiences of that place.
  20. Gross Domestic Product ( GDP)
    Estimate of the total value of all materials, foodstuffs,goods, and services produced by a country in a particular year.
  21. Gross National Income (GNI)
    Similar to GDP, but also includes the value of income from abroad.
  22. Growth Poles
    Economic activities that are deliberately organized around one or more high growth industries.
  23. Import Substitution
    Process by which domestic producers provide goods or services that formerly were bought from foreighn producers.
  24. Inflation
    Increased supply of printed currency that leads to higher prices and international financial differentials.
  25. Infrastructure (or Fixed Social Capital)
    Underlying framework of services and amenities needed to fascilitate productive activity.
  26. Initial Advantage
    Critical importance of an early start in economic developement; a special case of external economies.
  27. International division of labor
    Specialization, by countries, in particular products for export.
  28. Just in time Production
    Manufacturing process in which daily or hourly delivery schedules of materials allow for minimal or zero inventories.
  29. Localization economies
    Cost osavings that accrue to a particular industries as a result of clustering togeather at a specific location.
  30. Logistics
    Movement and storage of goods and the management of the entire supply chain, from purchase of raw materials through sale of the final product and back agai, for the replenishment of goods as they are sold.
  31. Neo- Fordism
    Economic principles in which the logic of mass production coupled with mass consumption is modified by the addition of more flexible production, distribution, and marketing systems.
  32. Newly Industrialized Countries ( NICs)
    Countries formerly peripheral within the world system that have aquired a significant industrial sector, usually through foreighn direct investment.
  33. OECD
    Organization for Economic Cooperation and Developement.
  34. Offshore financial centers
    Islands or microstates that have become a specialized node in the geography of worldwide financial flows.
  35. Primary Activities
    Economic activities that are concerned directly with natural resources of any kind.
  36. Quarternary Activities
    Economic activities that deal with the hanling and processing of knowledge and information.
  37. Secondary Activities
    Econlomic activities that process, transform, fabricate, or assemble the raw materials derived from primary activities, or that reassemble, refinish, or package manufactured goods.
  38. Spread Effects
    Posotive impacts on a region ( or regions) of the economic growth of some other region.
  39. Strategic Alliances
    Commercial agreements between transnational corporations, usually involving shared technologies, marketing networks, market research, or product developement.
  40. Sustainable developement
    Vision of developement that seeks a balance among economic growth, environmental impacts, and social equity.
  41. Terms Of trade
    Ratio of prices at which exports and imports are exchanged.
  42. Tertiary Activities
    Economic activities involving the sale and exchange of goods and services.
  43. Trading Blocs
    Groups of Countries with formalized systems of trading agreements.
  44. Transnational corporations
    companies with investments and activities that span international boundaries and with subsidiary companies, factories, offices, or facilities in several countries.
  45. Vertical Disintegration
    Evolution from large, functionally integrated firms within a given industry toward networks of specialized firms, subcontractors, and suppliers.
  46. World City
    City in which a disproportianate part of the worlds most important business is conducted.
  47. Geographically, the single most important feature of economic developement is that it is highly uneven.
    At the global scale, the unevenness takes the form of core periphery contrasts. these contrasts raise imortant issues of spatial justice that are closed bound up with gender inequality and socialjustic. Similar core-periphery contrasts- and equally important issues o spatial justice- exist at the regional scale.
  48. Geopgraohic divisions of labor have evolved with the growth of the world system of trade and politics and with the changing locational logic of sucessive technology systems.
  49. Regional Cores of economic developement are createdcumulatively, following some initial advantage, through the operation of several basic principles of spatial organization.
  50. Spirals of economic developement can be arrested in various ways, including the onset of disinvestment and deindustrialization, which follow major shifts in technology systems and in international geopolotics.
  51. The globalization of the economy has meant that patterns and processes of local and regional economic developement are much more open ro external influences than before.