Exam 2

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  1. What are the functions of Skin?
    • 1. Protection
    • 2. Body Temperature regulation
    • 3. Cutaneous Sensation
    • 4. Metabolic Function
    • 5. Blood Reservoir
    • 6.Secretion
  2. What are the regions of the skin?
    • Epidermis
    • Dermis
    • Hypodermis
  3. Epidermis
    • The outermost layer
    • Keratinized, stratified squamous epithelium
    • Keratin makes it stronger/tougher
  4. Dermis
    • 2 different types of connective tissue
    • Connective Tissue Proper
  5. What are the 4 different types of cells that make up the Epidermis?
    • Kerantiocytes
    • Langehens Cells
    • Merkel Cells
    • Melenocytes
  6. Kerantiocytes
    • Produces Keratin(Makes cells tough/hard)
    • Connected by desmosomes
    • Arises from a deeper mitotically active layer
    • Dead at Surface
  7. Langehens Cells
    • Resident Macrophage Cells(White Blood Cells)
    • Active Immune Systems
    • Initiate the immune response
  8. Merkel Cells
    • This is the receptor for touch.
    • It is located at the epidermal junction.
    • More in fingers, less in back
  9. Melenocytes
    • Synthesizes Melanin (Give you skin color)
    • Found in deepest layer
    • Amount of Melanin determines color
  10. What are the layers of the Epidermis in order?
    • Stratium Basale
    • Stratium Spinosum
    • Stratium Grulosum
    • Stratium Corneum
    • Stratium Lucidin
  11. Stratium Basale
    • Deepest layer, attached to dermis
    • Single Row of youngest keratinocytes
    • Melanocytes Cells
    • Uses most of energy
    • Skin Color orginates in this layer
  12. Stratium Spinosum
    • Several Layers thick
    • Irregular shaped Keratinocytes
    • Attached by desmosomes
    • Starting to produce Keratin
    • Still use a little energy
  13. Stratium Grulosum
    • 3-5 Layers Thick
    • Organelles are depleted
    • Cells begin to die
  14. Keratohyaline Granules
    • Help form keratin in upper layers.
    • Located in Stratium Grulosum
  15. Lamellated Granules
    • A cell that contain a water resistant glycolipid that is spewed in the extra cellular space and is a major factor in slowing water loss across the Epidermis.
    • Located in Stratium Grulosum
  16. Stratium Corneum
    • 20-30 layers thick
    • Glycolipid between cells(Help skin be waterproof)
    • Washed a little away everyday
  17. Stratium Lucidin
    • Single cell layer thick
    • Only found in palms and soles of feet
  18. 2 layers of the Dermis
    • Papillary Layer
    • Reticular Layer
  19. Papillary Layer
    • Loose Areolar Connective Tissue
    • 20% of the Dermis
    • Dermal Papillae
    • It is loose to allow phagocytes and other defensive cells to move around to protected the body from bacteria that could have possible gotten past the epidermis.
  20. Reticular Layer
    • 80% of the Dermis
    • Dense irregular connective Tissue
  21. Dermal Papillae
    • The indent the overlying epidermis
    • Some contain capillary loops and some contain touch receptors.
  22. Elector Fili Muscle
    Makes the hair stand up on end goose pimples
  23. Friction Ridges
    Increase friction and enhance the gripping ability of the fingers and feet.
  24. Clevage Lines
    Collagen Fibers arranged in bundles form cleavage(Tension Lines)
  25. Eccrine Sweat Glands
    • Most Abundant gland
    • Not prominent in children
    • High density on palms, side of feet and forehead
    • Secrete sweat
  26. Sweat
    • Hypotonic blood filtrate
    • 99% water, some NaCl and other materials
    • Acidic(pH 4-6)-Used to help with bacteria control
    • Thermoregulation
  27. Apocrine Sweat Glands
    • Sex hormone stimulates this gland so not present until puberty
    • Converted to axially(armpit) region and anal genital area
    • Larger then Eccrine Gland
    • Higher Lipid content- leads to milky color and body odor from bacteria.
    • Creates sexual arousals
    • Similar to sexual scent gland-sexual foreplay increases activity
  28. Mammary Glands
    • Creates Milk
    • Men have these glands they just don't work.
  29. Serimincous Glands
    Makes Earwax(Helps keep bugs away)
  30. Sebuceous Glands(Oil)
    • Puke to skin soft and smooth
    • Alveolar gland(everywhere but the palms and soles of feet)
    • Secretes Sebum
  31. Sebum(Holocrine)
    • Lubrication-helps hair from getting matted up
    • Skin-slows waterloss
    • Hair-prevents brittleness
    • Bacterial Function-kills bacteria
    • Stimulated by androgens(more abundant after puberty)
  32. Acne develops:
    • Hair follicles become plugged: sebum and dead skin follicle
    • Bacteria is then triggered leading to inflammation, infection
    • Once the inflammation response occures white blood cells are sentand this cause the puss.
  33. Reasons for Hair
    • Nerve endings help us preserve our environment, insect, or wind.
    • Hair protects from sun.
    • Hair distributed over entire skin expect soles of feet, palms, lips, nipples, and portions of external genitalia.
  34. 3 Layers of Cells for Hair
    • Medulla
    • Cortex
    • Cuticle
  35. Medulla
    • Cell of Hair
    • No Hard Keratin; only terminal hair has Medulla
    • Not found in fine hairs
    • Only part with soft keratin
  36. Cortex
    • Cell of Hair
    • Tend to be thick
    • Moderately hard keratin
  37. Cuticle
    • Cell of Hair
    • Completly made of keratin
    • Outer layer
  38. What are split ends?
    The cuticle has been removed and the cortex and medulla has begun to unravel.
  39. Review Hair Bulb In Notes and Book
  40. Terminal Hair
    • Thick Hair
    • Hair on head
    • Eye Brows
    • Visible
  41. Vellus Hair
    • Thin Hair
    • Doesn't develop or grow
  42. Growth of Hair
    • 2.5 mm per week
    • Activate/Dormant(fall out)
  43. Loose about ________ per day
    _____________ have stay longer, so not as many fall out
    • 90
    • Eye Brow
  44. Alopecia
    • Hair Thinning
    • Age related hair loss
  45. Baldness
    • Generally determined and sex altered
    • Male Pattern baldness-caused by follicular response to DHT(high levels of DHT)
    • Passed by mom(sex-linked) have to have trait for it
    • Makes hair follicular sensitive; makes hair follicles to be dormant usually they have very short life cycle for the hair.
  46. Basal Cell Carcinoma(Skin Cancer)
    • Least malignant; most treatable; this is the one u want to get.
    • Stratum basal cells proliferate and invade dermis
    • Sun exposed area more common
    • Usually a slow growing type of cancer
  47. Squamous Cell Carcinoma (Skin Cancer)
    • Keratinocyte of the stratum spinosum
    • Will start with what looks like a mole, but is more rapid than basal cell
    • Grows rapidly, metastasizes, good outcome if caught early(enters the blood stream and goes somewhere else)
  48. Melanoma (Skin Cancer)
    • Most dangerous, highly metastasize, chemotherapy resist
    • Cancer of melanocytes
    • 1/3 from pre-existing moles
    • Start at basal layer epidermis; don't see it before it has already has spread
    • Spreads laterally, then down before it grows up and can be identified
  49. ABCD Rule of Thumb Identifing Skin Cancer
    • Asymmetry- 2 sides don't match; unusual, not uniform
    • Border Irregular-indentions in border; tent to have a distinct pattern
    • Color-pigmented spots contain different colors; not uniform in color
    • Diameter- longerthan 6 mm diameter
  50. 1st Degree Burn
    Only the epidermis is damaged
  51. 1st Degree Burn Symptoms
    • Localized redness
    • Swelling pain
    • Some peeling a few days later
  52. 2nd Degree Burn
    Epidermis and upper dermis are damaged.
  53. 2nd Degree Burn Symptoms
    • Localized redness
    • Swelling pain
    • Some peeling a few days later
    • BLISTERS(fluid accumulation)
    • Swelling
  54. 3rd Degree Burns
    • Entire thickness of the skin is damaged, getting into deeper tissue.
    • Can't regulate temperature in burnt area because the loss of sweat glands
    • Charring is also accompanying the skin next to the burn.
    • Dehydration is the 1st thing to worried about
    • Infection is next: will happen the next 12 to 24 hours
  55. 3rd Degree Burns Symptoms
    • Burn appears gray-white, cherry-red, or black
    • There is no initial pain or edema
    • Have to get a skin graft(To completly heal)
  56. Rules of Thumb for Burns(Burns are critcal if:)
    • Over 25% of body has 2nd degree burns
    • Over 10% of body has 3rd degree burns
    • There are 3rd degree burns on face, hands and/or face
  57. Rules of Nine
    • Tool to estimate body fluid loss
    • 1%-Private
    • 9%-Front of Legs
    • 9%-Back of Legs
    • 9%-Whole Arms
    • 9%-Anterior of Front
    • 9%-Posterior of Back
    • 9%-Head
  58. Types of Skeletal Cartilage
    • Hyaline
    • Elastic
    • Fibrocartilage
  59. Hyaline
    • Provides support but is flexible
    • Most abundant
    • Good at withstanding comprising forces
    • Located on long bones to decrease friction
  60. Elastic
    • Withstands repeated stretching
    • Located in the ear and epiglottitis
    • Can be stretch and returned back to original shape
  61. Firbrocartilage
    • Compressible with a high tensile strengeth
    • Located mostly where we have compression
    • Acts as a cushion
    • More dense than hyaline
  62. Appositional Growth(Outside)
    Cartilage Growth
    • Cartilage forming cells secrete new matrix an external face;
    • Chondroblasts(can lay down cartilage)
    • Become a chondrocytes when their is a high number in the lacunae.
    • Laying down new cartilage as well as laying down ground substance.
  63. Interstitial Growth(Outside)
    Cartilage Growth
    • 1 Mature chondrocytes secrete matrix
    • Lays down limited amount of cartilage and ground substance
    • Limited amount of growth
  64. Bone Functions
    • Support
    • Protect
    • Movement
    • Mineral Storage
    • Blood Cell Formation
  65. Groups of Bones-2
    • Axial Skeleton
    • Appendicular Skeleton
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Exam 2
Anatomy and Physiology Notes
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