geography ch9

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geography ch9
2012-02-22 02:19:17

Geography ch 9
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  1. Bioterrorism
    deliberate use of microorganisms or toxins from living organisms to induce death or disease.
  2. Centrifugal Forces
  3. forces that divide or tend to Pull the state apart.
  4. Centripetal Forces
    Forces that strengthen and unify the state.
  5. Children rights
    The fundamental right of children to life, liberty, education, and health care codified by the united Nations convention on the right of the Child in 1989
  6. Citizinship
    A category of belonging to a nation state that includes civil, political, and social rights.
  7. Confederation
    A group of states united for a common purpose.
  8. Cumulative Causation
    A spiral buildup of advantages that occurs in specific geographic settings as a result of the developement of external economies, agglomeration effects, and localization economies.
  9. Decolonization
    The aquisition, by colonized people, of control over their own territory.
  10. demographic transition
    replacement of high birth and death rates by low birth and death rates.
  11. Discourse
    Institutionalized ways of constituting knowledge.
  12. Domino Theory
    The theory that if one country in a region chooses or is forced to accept a communist political and economic system, then neighboring countries would be irresistably susceptible to communism.
  13. East/ west divide
    Communist and noncommunist countries, respectiviely
  14. Federal State
    Form of government in which power is allocated to units of local governments within the country.
  15. Geopolotics
    States power to control space or territory and shape the foreighn policy of individual states and international political relations.
  16. Gerrymandering
    Practice of redistricting for partisan purposes.
  17. Global Civil Society
    Set of institiutions, organizations and behaviors situated between the state, business world, and family including voluntary and non-profit organizations philanthropic institutions, and social and political movements.
  18. Human Rights
    Peoples individual rights to justice, freedom, equality, consdidered by most societies to belong automatically to all people.
  19. International Organization
    Group that includes two or more states seeking political and/ or economic cooperation with each other.
  20. international regime
    Orientation of contemporary politics around the international arena instead of the national.
  21. Intifada
    Uprising against Israel by the Palestinian people.
  22. Nation
    a group of people often sharing common elements of culture, such as religion or language or a history or political identity.
  23. Nationalism
    Feeling of belonging to a nation as well as the belief that a nation has a natural rightto determine its own affairs.
  24. Nation- state
    Ideal form consisting of a homogeneous geoup of people by their own state.
  25. New World Order
    Triumph of capitalism over communism, wherein the United states becomes the worlds only superpower and therefore its policing force.
  26. North/south divide
    differentiation made between the colonizing states of the northern hemisphere and the formerly colonized states of the southern hemispherem
  27. Orientalism
    Discourse that positions the west as culturally superior to the east.
  28. reapportionment
    Process of allocating electoral seats to geographical areas.
  29. redistricting
    defining and redefining of territotial district boundaries.
  30. regionalism
    Feeling of collective identity based of a populations politico-territorial identification within a state or across state boundaries.
  31. Sectionalism
    Extreme devotion to local interests and customs.
  32. self - determination
    right of a group with a distinctive polotico-territorial identify to determine its own destiny, at least in part, through the control of its own territory.
  33. Soverighnty
    Exercise of state power over people and territory , recognized by other states and codified by international law.
  34. Supranational Organizations
    Collections of individual states with a common goal that may be economic and/or political in nature.
  35. Territorial Organization
    Systems of government formally structured by area, not by social group.
  36. Territory
    Deliminated area over which a state exervises control and which is recognized by other states.
  37. Terrorism
    Threat or use of force to bring about political change.
  38. Unitary State
    Form of government in which power is concentrated in the central government.
  39. Zionism
    Movement for the establishment of a legally recognized home in Palestine for the Jewish People