Anatomy II

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  1. 1)Define Lymph Node
    Principle lymphoid organ which cluster along the lymphatic vessels of the body. There are hundreds of these small organs usually embedded in connective tissue. Large clusters occur near body surface in the inguinal, axillary, cervical regions. Act as filters by removing and destroying microorganisms. Help activate immune system.
  2. 2) Where do you find Peyer's Patch
    Are aggregated lymphoid nodules which are large clusters of lymphoid follicles, structurally similiar to tonsils. Located in the wall of the distal portion of the small intestine, Lymphoid follicles are also in the appendix of the large intestine. Prevent pathogens from entering the mucous membrane lining
  3. 3)What causes lymph to move through vessels?
    • • Lymph flows at low pressure and speed
    • – Moved along by rhythmic contractions of lymphatic vessels
    • – Stretching of vessels stimulates contraction
    • – Valves prevent backward flow
    • • Flow aided by skeletal muscle pump
    • – Exercise significantly increases lymphatic return
    • • Thoracic pump aids flow from abdominal to thoracic
    • cavity
    • • Rapidly flowing bloodstream in subclavian veins, draws
    • lymph into it
    • Flow Route:
    • • Lymphatic capillaries
    • • Collecting vessels
    • – Course through many lymph nodes
    • • Lymphatic trunks
    • – Drain major portions of body
    • • Collecting ducts
    • – Right lymphatic duct
    • • Receives lymph from R arm, R side of head and thorax
    • • Empties into R subclavian vein
    • – Thoracic duct
    • • Larger and longer
    • • Begins as a prominent sac in abdomen called the cisterna chyli
    • • Receives lymph from below diaphragm, left arm, left side of head, neck and
    • thorax
    • • Empties into L subclavian vein
  4. 4) When is the thymus most active
    During the early years of life, it continues to increase in size during the first year of life, when it is highly active
  5. 5)What is the function of the Right Lymphatic Duct
    Drains lymph from the right arm and right side of the upper body(head) and thorax, empties along with the thoracic duct into the blood vascular system at the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins in the neck
  6. 6) What is the connection of immunocompetent and thymus hormone
    Thymus differs from other lymphoid organs b/c it functions strictly in maturation of T lymphocyte precursors and it does directly fight antigens. The stroma of the thymus consist of epithelial cells rather than reticular fibers, they provide the physical and chemical environment in which T lymphocytes can become immunocompetent
  7. 7)Funtions of the Spleen
    • Blood production in fetus,Blood reservoir,RBC disposal, Immune reactions, Filters blood, rapidly detects antigens
    • Provides a site for lymphocyte prolifertation and immune function, and destroys aged or defective red blood cells and bloodborne pathogens. also stores and releases the breakdown products of hemoglobin as necessary, stores platelets and acts as a hemotopoietic site in fetus
  8. 8) What is the dominant tissue type in Lymphoid Tissue
    Reticular connective tissue (loose connective tissue) dominates all organs except thymus. Microphages live on the fibers of the reticular network.
  9. 9)What are the location of the three tonsil group? (Name and Location)
    • Palatine Tonsils: located on either side at the posterior end of the oral cavity, largest of the tonsils and the most infected
    • Lingual Tonsil: lumpy collection of lymphoid follicles at the base of the tongue
    • Pharyngeal Tonsils: posterior wall of the nasopharynx(adenoids)
    • Tubal Tonsils: surround the openings of the auditory tubes into the pharynx
  10. 10) What is Lymph Composed of?
    • Composition of fluid found within the system
    • – Clear, colorless fluid
    • • Like plasma but with a much lower concentration of proteins
    • – Lymphocytes present
    • – Hydrophobic molecules & structures
    • • E.g. Lipids from the digestive process that are difficult to move
    • – Cell debris
    • • Sources
    • – Fluids not recaptured by the capillary system
    • • 3.6 L per day delivered to lymphatic capillaries
    • – Inclusions from surrounding cells & interstitial fluid
  11. 11)Function of Lymphatic System?
    Lymphatic vessels return fluids that have leaked from the blood vascular system back to the blood. Lymphoid organs and tissues protect the body by removing foreign material from the lymph and blood streams and provide a site for immune survellience. These make up the lymphatic system.

    • The return of fluid and
    • solutes from peripheral
    • tissues to the blood to
    • maintain fluid balance
    • • Absorbs plasma proteins
    • and fluid (2 to 4 L/day)
    • from tissues and returns
    • it to the bloodstream
    • • Transportation
    • – Distribution of hormones, nutrients, and waste products
    • from their tissues of origin to the general circulation
    • • Lacteals in small intestine absorb dietary lipids and transport to
    • blood stream
    • • Immunity
    • – The maturation, maintenance, and distribution of
    • lymphocytes to protect the body from infection and
    • disease
    • • Fluids from all capillary beds are filtered
    • • Immune cells stand ready to respond to foreign cells or chemicals
    • encountered
  12. 12)Characteristics of Antibody
  13. 13)Where do B cells become immunocompetent
    In bone marrow
  14. 14)What are the functions of inflammotory response
    • Prevents the spread of damaging agents to nearby tissues, disposes of cell debris and pathogens, sets the stage for repair
    • The four cardinal signs: redness heat swelling pain. The inflammatory process begins with a chemical alarm as a flood of inflammoatory chemicals are released into the extracellular fluid.
  15. 15) What is called clonoselection of B cells? What causes it?
    When an immonocompetent but naive B lymphocyte is activated, stimulated to complete differentiation, when matching antigens bind to its surface receptors and cross linked adjacent receptors together. Antigen binding is quickly followed by receptor mediated endocytosis of the cross linked antigen receptor complexes. (Primary Immune Response/ adaptive response to humoral immunity)
  16. 16)What kind of cells are called natural killer cells
    NK cells are part of a small group called large granular lymphocytes, they are not phagocytic
  17. 17) Define Chemotaxis
    They attract leukocytes to inflammatory chemicals. Part of the phagocyte mobilization. 1)Leukocytosis 2) Margination 3)Diapedesis 4) Chemotaxis-neutrophils follow chemical trail, collect at the site and devour and foreign material present.
  18. 18) Define Hapten
    • A troublesome small molecule that is also known as an incomplete antigen
    • (mini antigen) requires a host macromolecule to
    • bind to them to stimulate immune response
    • found in poisen ivy, cosmetic, pollen, dander, detergents and household products
  19. 19) Which T cell can kill other cells
    Cytotoxic T Cells
  20. 20) Function of interferon
    • Interferons are polypeptides secreted by cells invaded by viruses
    • – Classified as cytokines
    • • Act as chemical messengers to coordinate the bodies defenses
    • – Use paracrine & hormone communication
    • they are small proteins secreted to help protect cells that have not yet been infected, they stimulate synthesis of protein which then interfere with viral replication in the still healthy cells by blocking protein synthesis and degrading viral RNA
  21. 21) What determines the kinds of antibody we produce
    Also called immunoglobulins constitute the gamma globulin part of blood protein. Antibodies are proteins secreted in response to an antigen by effector B cells called plasma cells
  22. 22) Characteristics of Antigens
  23. 23) What are the functions of cytokins
    • cytokins stimulate fibroblasts
    • Tissue Repair
    • – Blood platelets and endothelial cells in injured area secrete a
    • cytokine, PDGF
    • • Stimulates fibroblasts to multiply and synthesize collagen
    • Promotes Inflammation
  24. 24) What is are second line of nonspecific defense
    • uses antimicrobial proteins, phagocytes, and other cells to inhibit the invaders spread throughout the body. ( Inflammation in the hallmark of this defense system) part of the innate defense system called into action when the first line of defense is penetrated (Skin & mucosae)
  25. 25)What is Opsonization?
    It is the coating by proteins or antibodies of foreign particles to allow phagocyte receptors to bind. The coating provides handles. Foreign particles are pathogens etc
  26. 26) Can Monoclonal antibodies be used to diagnose juvenile diabetes
    No they are used to diagnose pregnancy, certain STDs, Some types of cancer, hepatitus, rabies, treat leukemia, lymphomas, cancers present in the circulation.
  27. 27) Which type of reaction would be allergic contact dermatitis
    delayed hypersensitivity (type IV) reactions
  28. 28) What are the characteristics of MHC compound
  29. 29) How is fever regulated
    Systemic response to invading microorganisms. Regulated by a cluster of neurons in the hypothalamus, known as the body's thermostat
  30. 30) Do active and passive immunity both use antibodies
    • Actibe is to vaccine and passive is to antibody.
    • Not sure of answer
  31. 31) What results from clonoselection of B cells
    It stimulates the B cell to grow and then multiply rapidly to form an army of cells all exactly like itself and bearing the same antigen-specific receptors called a clone. Happens when antigen bind quickly followed by receptor mediated endocytosis of the cross linked antigen receptor complexes.
  32. 32) Which is the most critical cell in immunity
    Helper T Cells
  33. 33) How can autoimmune disorders develop
    Immune system loses its ability to distinguish friend(self) from foe (foreighn antigens. The immune system turns against itself and the body produces antibodies and cytotoxic T cells that destroy its own tissues.
  34. 34) What are the functions of antibodies
    Five classes exist: IgM IgA IgD IgG IgE. Functions include complement fixation and antigen neutralization, precipitation,agglutination
  35. 35) TLR What do they trigger the release of?
    They are surface membrane receptors that play a central role in triggering immune responses. there are 11 TLR, they trigger the realease of chemicals called citokines that promote inflammation and WBC to the scene (innate defense)
  36. 36) Compare to blood capillaries how are lymph capillaries different?
    Whereas a blood capillary has an arterial and venous end. A lymph capillary has no arterial end. Instead each lymph capillary originates as a closed tube. Lymph capillaries also have a larger irregular lumen (inner space) than blood capillaries and are more permeable (defused). Lymph capillaries branch and interconnect freely and extend into almost all tissues of the body except the Central Nervous System and the a vascular tissues such as the epidermis (outer most layer of the skin) and the cartilage. Lymph capillaries join to form vessels called lymphatics or lymph veins. These resemble blood-conducting veins but have thinner walls and relatively larger lumen, and they have more valves

    • • Closed at one
    • end
    • • Tethered to
    • surrounding
    • tissue by
    • protein
    • filaments
    • Endothelial cells loosely
    • overlapped
    • – Allow bacteria and cells
    • entrance to lymphatic
    • capillary
    • – Creates valve-like flaps
    • that open when interstitial
    • fluid pressure is high, and
    • close when it is low
  37. 37) Characteristics of Thymus Gland
    • Very large in fetus
    • – After age 14 begins involution
    • – In elderly, mostly fatty and fibrous tissue
    • • Epithelial cell stroma
    • • Forms a blood / thymus
    • barrier in cortex
    • – Isolates developing T
    • lymphocytes from
    • foreign antigens
    • • Secretes hormones
    • – Thymopoietin, thymulin
    • and thymosins
    • – Promote development
    • and action of T
    • lymphocytes
    • • Connective tissue capsule
    • gives off trabeculae
    • – Divides parenchyma into
    • lobules with a cortex and
    • medulla
    • provides environment where t lymphocyte mature & become immunocompetent
  38. 38) What is red pulp the spleen?
    all remaining splenic tissue the venous sinuses and splenic cords, regions of reticular connective tissue exceptionally rich in machrophages. Disposes worn out red blood cells and bloodborne pathogens
  39. 39) What are the categories of the body of the nonspecific defenses
    Innate defenses: First line of defense= external body membranes(skin and mucosae) Second lone of defenses= uses antimicrobial protein, phagocytes, and other cells to prevent from invading the body. (infammation is the main thing in this line of defense)
  40. 40) What initiates the classic complement fixation
    • This is the chief antibody defense used against cellular antigens such as bacteria or mismatched red blood cells. Fixation happens when several antibodies bind close together on the same cell, the complement binding sites on their stem regions align. It happenson the antigenic cells surface followed by cell lysis
    • This is part of the antibody target and functions
  41. 41) What is the function of suppressor Tcells
    Dampen the immune response (t reg) Act by direct contact or by realeasing inhibitory cytokins such as IL-10 and TGF-b. Prevent autoimmune reactions because they suppress self reactive lymphocytes in the periphery- outside the lymphoid organ
  42. 42) What are NK cells and what do they do
    Police the body in blood and lymph are a unique group of defensive cells tha can lyse and kill cancer cells and virus infected body cells before the adaptive immune system is avtivated. can eliminate a variety of infected or cancerous cells by detecting the lack of self cell surface receptors and by recognizing certain surface sugars on the target cell. not picky
  43. 43) Which immunoglobin is a pantermere
  44. 44) What can result when an antigen binds to an antibody
    they get inactivated and tagged for destruction known as antigen antibody complexes(immune) they are neutralization, agglutination, precipitation, and complement fixation
  45. 45) What are the steps in a cell mediated response
    • Clonal selection and differentiation of T cells
    • Specific Effector T cells Roles
    • Organ Transplants and prevention of rejection
  46. 46) A class two MHC stimulates what cell
    T Cells
  47. 47) What steps occur if you get a bacteria infection
  48. 48) What do interleukins do
    secreted by activated macrophages, promotes inflammation and t cell activation, causes fever( a pyrogen that resets the thermostat of the hypothalamus
  49. 49) Immunoglobulin M&G ratio
  50. 50) What are the main antigens presenting cells in the body?
    Antigen-presenting cells (APC) are specialized white blood cells that help fight off foreign substances that enter the body. These cells send out signals to T-cells (other immune system cells) when an antigen enters the body. Each type of T-cell is specially equipped to deal with different pathogens, which may be a bacteria, virus or toxin.
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Anatomy II
Review for 3rd Exam
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