NDFS

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kccall93
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136987
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NDFS
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2012-02-27 12:50:13
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Nutrition
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Test 2 Chap 5-7
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  1. Describe functions of fat in the body and in foods:
    In the Body:
    • Energy Storage (fat is chief form of stored energy in body)
    • Muscle Fuel
    • Emergency Reserve (In times of illness/ famine)
    • Cushions (protects organs)
    • Insulation (through temperature extremes)
    • Phospholipids form cell membranes
    • Raw materials (converted to hormones, bile, Vit D)
    • Cholesterol Necessary for Brain function
    • (Breathing and heart beating burns fat)
    • Contribute to satiety (satisfaction, feeling of fullness)
  2. describe functions of fat in Food:
    • Nutrient- fats provide essential fatty acids
    • concentrated energy source
    • transport- fat soluble vitmains A, D, E, K + aid in absorption
    • Raw materials- for makign needed products
    • Sensory appeal (taste, aroma)
    • Stimulate appetite (probably due to satiety)
    • Satiety (feel fuller longer)
    • Texture (tender)
  3. Describe the differnt types, structures, and functions of lipids including fatty acids.
    • 3 classes of Lipids:
    • Triglycerides
    • phospholipids
    • Sterols
  4. class: Triglycerides
    three fatty acids attached to a glycerol. Triglycerides are the body's storage form of fat. Can differ in chain length and degree of saturation. Fatty acid types vary.
  5. class: Phospholipids
    two fatty acids and a phosphate group attached to a glycerol. Serves as an emulsifier. They also bind together to form cell membranes. Have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic (polar and non-polar) characteristics that help transport fats across these membranes. Generate signals inside cells in response to hromones (i.e. insulin) to help regulate body functions
  6. class: Sterols
    interconnected rings of carbon atoms with chains of C, H and O attached. Serves as raw material for making emulsifiers in bile, which is important in fat digestion. Also important for the structure of cell membranes.
  7. Structure: Triglycerides
    (fatty-acids and oils) are the main form of fat in the body, making up 95% of the lipids in the body. they consist of one glycerol molecule and three fatty acid chains. Generally, the more unsaturated the fatty acids, the more liquid the fat is at room temperature, and the more saturated the fatty acids, the firmer the fat.
  8. Structure: omega-6 fatty acid
    is a polyunsaturated fatty acid with its endmost double bond six carbons from the end (omega end) of teh carbon chain-- more blood clotting, higher blood pressure and inflammation, lowers all cholesterol-- good and bad. Omega 6s (ex: linoleic acid (in vegetable oils) is an omega-6). to check saturation, put oil in a clear container and put it in the fridge. Watch for cloudiness. The least saturated oils remain clear.
  9. Omega-3 fatty acid
    is a polyunsaturated fatty acid with its endmost double bond 3 carbons from the omega end of teh carbon chain (linolenic)-- weaker blood blotting, lower blood pressure, protects against irregular heartbeats, reduces inflammation, and is essential for infant growth and development. Also lowers LDL. Excess of omega 3 increases risk of hemorrhage and stroke. Omega-3s (ex: linolenic-- in canola oil, flaxseed oil, soybean oil, nts and seeds, fatty fish)
  10. EPA, DHA =
    in fish, seafood, human milk. DHA and EPA (fish oils_ in fish tissue are important for unclotting blood, lowering blood pressure, and is an essential fatty-acid
  11. Phospholipids
    consist of one glycerol molecule, 2 fatty acids, and a molecule containing phosphorus (phosphate--water soluble/polar end). (ex lecithin) acts as an emulsifier-- aids in breakdown of fats, holds water to fat (ex: eggs contain lecithin, and are used in baking to hold polar and non-polar ingredients together). Make up cell membranes because they are water-loving and fat-loving (reason why membranes are semi-permeable and can allow certain things in or out)
  12. Sterols
    consist of interconnecting rings of carbon atoms with side chains of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen attached. (most comonly found in animal products) (ex cholesterol, which aids in creation of Vit. D and makes the emulsifiers in bile, and sex hormones). Sterols other than cholesterol exist in plants. Plant sterols resemble cholesterol in structure and can inhibit cholesterol absorption in teh human digestive tract, thus lowering blood cholesterol levels. Not only can plant sterols (phytosterol) inhibit cholesterol absorption, they also may block absorption of other important nutrients as well. Cholesterol is important in cell membrane structure. It can be made by the body, so it's not an essential nutrient
  13. Describe lipid digestion
    • Mouth: in infants,saliva is the first part of digestion (contains enzyme that helps break down milk fat)
    • Stomach: churns, but the stomach cannot completely disperse the fat in the water parts, therefore, little digestion occurs there. Fats separate from other food components and float on top of the watery stomach liquids becasue fats are less dense
    • Small intestine: First, teh digestive system mixes fats with bile containing digestive juices to emulsify the fats; then, fat digesting enzymes from the pancreas can break down the fats.
  14. Describe lipid absorption:
    Once emulsified, fat-splitting enzymes act on triglycerides to split fatty acids from the glycerol. Single fatty acid chains and glycerol enter the blood stream freely. Once this happens, free fatty acids, phospholipids and monoglycerides cling together in balls surrounded by bile emulsifiers. This allos enzymes to break the fats down. Bile shuttles lipids across water mucus layer to waiting cells of intestinal villi, then the cells extract the lipids. The bile may also be absorbed and reused or be excreted by feces. The body is very efficient at digesting lipids, up to 98% of fats consumed are absorbed! very little fat is excreted by a healthy system. Fat makes digestion take longer, so the more fat in a meal the longer the digestion system action becomes. pg. 158 diagram
  15. Describe lipid Transportation;
    • Glycerol and shorter chains can pass directly through the cells of the intestinal lining into the blood stream, where they travel to the liver. The larger ones must form lipoproteins before they can be released into the lymph in vessels that lead to the blood stream
    • Lipoproteins: Assembled packages of lipidsand protein molecules, which serve as transport vehicles for lipids in blood and lymph. Larger lipids fragments
  16. Riboflavin- B2
    • Functions: coenzyme energy metabolism
    • Deficiency: Ariboflavinosis, cracks in lip corners, smooth magenta tongue, sore throat, rash, sensitive to light
    • Toxicity: None
    • Sources: Milk, Yogurt, Meat, Green/leafy
  17. Niacin- B3
    • Function: coenzyme energy metabolism
    • Deficiency: Pellegra, diarrhea, vomit, black/red swollen smooth tongue, irritability, headache, confusion, flaky skin rash (from sun)
    • Toxicity: flush and rash, sweat, liver damage
    • Sources: milk, eggs, protein foods
  18. Thiamin-B1
    • Functions: coenzyme neede in energy metabolism
    • Deficiency: Beriberi (wet/dry), edema, large heart/failure, degeneration, paralysis, weight loss
    • Toxicity: no symptoms yet
    • Sources: pork, ham, bacon, seeds, legumes, etc
  19. Folate
    • Function: coenzyme for new cell synthesis
    • Deficiency: anemia, heartburn, smooth red tongue, increased risk of neural tube affects
    • Toxicity: Masks B12 deficiency
    • Sources: avocado, leafy green vegetables, beets, legumes, pasta, cereals, grains.
  20. Vitamins in General
    • no caloric value
    • needed in order to derive energy from food
    • convert energy from food into energy our body uses
    • Required for growth/development
    • 13
    • Fat Soluble- ADEK - long storage except K
    • Water Soluble- B complex, 8, C Short except B12
    • Provitamins= betacarotene- two molecles of A
  21. Vitamin A
    • Functions: vision (healthier cornea, mucus membranes, bones/tooth growht, regulation of gene expression, reproduction
    • Deficiency: Hypovitaminosis, anemia, infections, night vision, kidney stones
    • Toxicity: red cell breakage, amencria, bone pain, headaches, fatigue, hair loss, liver damage, birth defects
    • Food sources: Fortified milk, cheese, carrots, pumpkin, cantaloupe
  22. Vitamin D
    • Functions: Mineralization of bones, raises blood calcium and phosphorus
    • Deficiency: rickets, bowed legs, osteomacia (soft bones)
    • Toxicity: raised calcium in blood- calcificaiton fo soft tissues
    • food sources: fortified milk, sardines, salmon, shrimp, self-fortified with sunlight
  23. Vitamin E
    • Functions: antioxidants, supports immune functions, quench free radicals, nerve development
    • Deficiency: red blood cell breakage, anemia, nerve degeneration
    • Toxicity: augments blood thinners, nausea, blurred vision fatigue
    • Sources: polyunsaturated, plant oils, green/leafy, wholegrain, nuts
  24. Vitamin K
    • Functions: snthesis of blood-clotting proteins, bone mineralizaiton
    • Deficiency: hemorrhage/ poor skeletal mineralization
    • Toxicity: opposes blood thinners
    • Sources: bacteria in digestive tract, green/leafy, veg oils
  25. Vitamin C
    • Functions: collagen synthesis, antioxidant, restores Vitamin E to active form, hormone synthesis, absorption of iron
    • Deficiency: Scurvy, pinpoint bruises, edema
    • Toxicity: nausea, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, headache, rashes insomnia
    • Sources: citrus fruits, cantaloupe, strawberries, lettuce
  26. Vitamin B6
    • Functions: coenzyme in amino acid and fatty acid metabolism
    • Deficiency: anemia-small, depression, rashes, (greasy, scaly, dermatitis)
    • Toxicity: Bloating, impaired memory, damage to nerves, skin lesions
    • Sources: meats, fish, poultry, liver, legumes, fruits, soy, potatoes
  27. Vitmain B12
    • Functions: coenzyme in new cell synthesis
    • Deficiency: anemia, smooth tongue, nerve degeneration, progressing to paralysis
    • Toxicity: no known symptoms
    • sources: animal products (meat, fish, poultry, milk, cheese,eggs)
  28. Minimize Nutrient Loss:
    Fresh, Steaming, Microwave
  29. Excess Protein:
    • 45% protein calories
    • - weakness, nausea, diarrhea, death "rabbit starvation"
    • Increased excretion
    • lean tissue loss
  30. Protein deficient:
    • Decreased growth, decreased immune system, loss in muscle tissue, weakness, edema, kidney problems, heart problems, PEM (protein energy malnutrition)
    • Kwashiorkor
    • - lack protein, adequate, water retention, swollen belly
    • Marasmus
    • - lack protein and calories, starvation, skin/ bones look
  31. Sources of proteins
    adequate amounts of all essentail amino acids... proetin synthesis. AA's are building blocks of proteins
  32. Protein digestion, abosrption, metabolism
    Strong acid in stomach, proteins in food enzymes attack peptide bonds
  33. Roles of protein in body
    • Regulation= enzymes, immunity, hormones
    • Transport= lipoproteins, carriers
    • pH level
    • Energy but wasteful
    • Nerve impulse
  34. Complementary proteins
    • Grains/nuts... legumes
    • Rice...lentils
    • Bread...PB
    • Pita Bread...Hummus
  35. Grams protein per measurement
    • Grains-3 g/oz
    • Fruits- 0 g/cup
    • Veg.- 4 g/cup
    • Milk- 8 g/cup
    • Meat 7 g/oz
  36. RDA AMDR proteins
    • RDA= .8 g/kg... healthy weight- higher for growing, pregnant, etc
    • AMDR= 10-35% calories
  37. High (excellent)
    _> 20% DV
  38. Free:
    none or trivial amount
  39. Healthy:
    low in _,_,_,_ and _also_>10% DV in _,_,_,_ or _.
  40. Good:
    10-19% DV
  41. Supplement nutrient guidelines
    • Risk: pregnant, vegans and AIOS, Alcoholics, chronic dieters, elderly, Celiac's disease
    • Look for: not extracts, likely lacking from diet
    • Less, =, or close to RDA, 41
    • <100%
    • <UL
  42. 1 cup Dairy
    1 c FF milk/yogur, 1 1/2 FF natural cheese, 2 oz FF processed cheese
  43. 1 tsp Oil
    1 Tbs lowfat mayo, 2 Tbs, light salad dressing, 1 tsp veg. oil, 1 tsp soft margarine
  44. 1 oz Meat
    1 oz cooked lean meat/fish, 1 egg 1/4 cooked legumes/ tofu, 1 Tbs PB, 1/2 oz nuts/seeds
  45. 1 oz Grains
    1 slice bread, 1/2 c cooked rice, pasta, cereal, 1 oz dry pasta or rice, 1 cup ready to eat cereal, 3 cups popped popcorn
  46. 1 Cup Vegetables
    1 c cut up, 1 c legumes, 1 c veg. Juice, 2 c raw/leafy greens
  47. 1 cup Fruit
    1 c fresh/frozen/canned fruit, 1/2 dried fruit, 1 c F Juice
  48. Food amounts 2400 calories
    • Fruits: 2 cups
    • Veg: 3 cups
    • Grains: 8 oz
    • Meat/legumes: 6 1/2 oz
    • Milk: 3 cups
    • Oils: 7 tsp
    • Dis Cals allowed: 362 cal
  49. 2400 Calories, 3000 calories
    • 2400- Active women (19-30) Active men (51+), Sedentary men (19-30)
    • 3000- Active men (19-30)
  50. Structures and types of Lipids
    • Triglycerides (3 fatty acids and glycerol) main form in food and body
    • Sterols: cholesterol, sex hormones, multi-firign sturctures
    • Phosophoipids: lecithin, egg whites?
  51. Lipid digestion, absorption, transportation:
    • Stomach: fat and watery juices separate.
    • Enzymes are only in the water.
    • Gallbladder secretes bile, it can bring fat into the water
    • Emulsificaiton exposed to enzymes
    • Processed efficiency
  52. Health Benefits/ problems with various lipids and food sources:
    • Saturated- solid at room temp, hydrogenated foods, high risk for CVD
    • Monounsaturated- liquid at room temp, olive oil, canola oil, nuts, may protect CVD
    • Polyunsaturated- liquid room temp, soy, canola, corn, sunflower, may decrease CVD, lots reduce LDL and HDL
    • EPA and DHA- fish oil Omega 6 and 3
  53. Functions of Lipids
    • Triglycerides
    • Sterols
    • Phospholipids
  54. Dietary guidelines, food guide, AMDR for fats
    • less than 10% cals from saturated fats
    • Less than 300mg per day cholesterol
    • trans fats as low as possible
    • AMDR: 20-35% cals from fat
  55. Options to reduce fat:
    Hidden fats, cut of visible fats, substitute
  56. Trans Fat
    • Makes them last longer, less rancidity
    • found in: hydrogenated fats/oils veg shorting, some margarines, deep fried, snack products, baked goods
  57. Nitrogen Balance
    • Positive when: growth pregnancy, recovery, athletic training
    • Negative when: inadequate intake of protein, bed rest- several days, deficiency of essential AA's
  58. Stages of Behavior change:
    • Precontmplation: not considering a change, see no problems with current behavior
    • Contemplation: admit change may be needed. pros/cons
    • Preparation: taking initial steps, set some goals.
    • Action: commit time energy to change, follow plan
    • Maintenance: strive to make it permanent
    • Adoption/moving on: former behavior gone, new in place
  59. Scientific Process:
    Observation and questions-> Hypothesis-> Experiment-> Results and interpretations-> Hypothesis supported or Not supported-> Theory and/or New observations and questions
  60. 5 characteristics of a healthy diet:
    • A: Adequacy: provides enough nutrients/ fiber/ energy
    • B: Balance: don't over-emphasize one at expense of other
    • C: Calorie control: right amount of energy
    • M: Moderation: not excessive in fat, sugar, salt, etc.
    • V: Variety: Different foods one day to next
  61. 6 Major nutrietn (roles and calorie values):
    • Carbs: 4 cal/g
    • Fats: 9 cal/g
    • Proteins: 4 cal/g- also provides materials to form parts of the body
    • Vitamins: regulators, no energy
    • Minerals: regulators, no energy
    • Water:
    • Alcohol= toxin 7 cal/g
  62. Ways nutrition affects health:
    • Good nutrition: support growth and maintenance of: bones, skin, muscles, sufficient blood.
    • Right amount of energy, sufficient nutrients, helps prevent chronic diseases.
  63. Obesity/diabetes- cause/ non-causation:
    • Carbs vs. calories
    • high fructose corn syrup= not
    • Sedentary lifestyle and added sugar
  64. DRI for carbs
    • 45-46% cal from carbs
    • Min: 130 g/day
    • Little added sugars
  65. Glycemic Index:
    Measure of degree carb foods elevate blood glucose and insulin, varies with individuals, body size, metabolic rates efficient, etc, time of day affects it, few foods tested.
  66. Diabetes: types/causes
    • 1: Genetic autoimmune disorder- body attacks pancreas and can't produce insulin
    • 2: tissues loose sensitivity to insulin-obesity
    • Symptoms:
    • Obesity, faint feeling, excessive urine/thirst, weight loss, pain in legs, vision problems, etc
    • Management:
    • Nutrition, physical activity
  67. Lactose intolerance
    • lose ability to produce the enzymes lactose to digest lactose
    • Eat with meals, enzyme pills/drops, lactose free milk
  68. Carbs in the body:
    • pass into small intestine some of the starches are partially broken down by enzymes from salivary gland. Pancreas enzyme digests most.
    • Enzymes in intestine splits di/ mono.. enter capillaries... in to liver. Liver converts Galactose and fructose to glucose. Rest... Through urine
  69. functions of Fat (body and foods)
    • Body: Energy stores, muscle fuel, emergency reserve, padding, insulation, cell membranes, raw materials
    • Food: Nutrient, energy, transport, raw materials, sensory appeal, appetitie, satiety, texture
  70. Vegetarian Diets:
    • Pros: lots of vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals, low in saturated fat, high in fiber, calorically less- good for Americans, not good for growing children. Less obesity/ chronic illness
    • Cons: low energy for kids, low in Ca, Fe, Zn, low in B12, little vitamin D from food- sunlight important
  71. Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA)
    • Promote healthy- balance calories/ expenditures, meet nutrient recomendations, exercise regularly
    • choose nutritious foods/ limit some food components
  72. Nutrient Recommendations:
    • DRI: Dietary Reference Intakes
    • RDA: Recommended Dietary Allowences
    • AI: Adequate Intakes
    • UL: Upper Tolerable Intake/levels
    • EAR: Estimated Average Requirements
    • DV: Daily Values
    • AMDR: Acceptable Macronutrients Distribution Ranges
  73. Nutrition information (web self-defense)
    • Bad: to good to be true, testimonials, unpublished studies, no- HON code
    • Good: HON cod, gov/edu websites, updated websites
  74. Refined, Enriched, Whole grains:
    • Refined: course parts are removed
    • Enriched: addition of nutrients to refined products
    • Whole grains: contain all essential and naturally occuring nutrient except husk- rice, pasta, bread, etc.
  75. Fiber
    • Benefits: Aids in digestion lowers cholesterol
    • Mechanisms: Viscous: metabolism/ cholesterol, Non-viscous: laxative
    • Sources: grains, apple, banana, beans, broccoli, carrots, etc.
    • In 20 g/day
  76. Digestible Carbohydrates:
    Grains, Milk
  77. Alcohol
    • Enters body, brain, liver-main metabolism site, stomach-breaks down some, excretion in breath/urine
    • Liver= rate= 1/2 ounce ethanol per hr
    • Antioxidants- liver fibrosis/ cirrhosis, reproductive decreases
  78. Common digestive disorders:
    • Constipation: diet: water, fiber. Lifestyle: activity
    • Hearburn: back flow of stomach acid into esophagus
    • Ulcer, erosion of linings, esophagus small upper intestine, stomach
    • Irritable bowel syndrome, cause uncertain, diarrhea or constipation
  79. Mouth:
    Chews and mixes food with saliva
  80. Esophogus:
    Passes food to stomach
  81. Stomach:
    upper, left quadrant, adds acid, enzmes, and fluid. Churns, mixes and grinds food into liquid mass
  82. Small intestine:
    secretes enzymes that digest carbs, fat and protein, cell lining abosrb nutrients into blood and lymph.
  83. Large intestine (colon):
    resorbs water and minerals, passes waste into rectum
  84. Rectum:
    Stores waste prior to elimination
  85. Anus:
    hods rectum closed until elimination
  86. Mechanical processes:
    • Mouth: Chew
    • Esophogus: peristalsis
    • Stomach: mixing
    • Small intestine: Mixing peristalsis
    • Large intestine: peristalsis
    • Rectum: storage
    • Anus: elimination
  87. Chemical processes:
    • Mouth; Enzymes
    • Esophogus: ------
    • Stomach: acid, enzymes
    • Small intestine: emulsifying, neutralizing enzymes
    • Large intestine:------
    • Rectum:-----
    • Anus:-----
  88. Storage absorbtion transportation:
    • Macro: carb: limited glycogen- can be converted to fat to store
    • Fat: unlimited, protein, no storage as protein
    • Micro: minerals/ Vitamins: HIGHLY variable
  89. Gallbladder
    "in"/ right under liver, stores bile until it is needed
  90. Bile duct:
    "stem" of gallbladder, conducts bile to small intestine
  91. Pancreatic duct:
    "oh pancreas", conduct pancreatic juice into small intestine
  92. Pancreas:
    upper, left quad (behind stomach), manufactures enzymes to digest energy yielding nutrients, releases bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid that enters small intestine
  93. Liver:
    upper right quadrant, manufacture bile- facilitates digestion of fats
  94. Salivary Glands:
    in cheek area, donate starch digesting enzyme, donate trace of fat digesting enzyme
  95. Photochemicals:
    Antioxidants that protect DNA and other cell compoudns from oxidative damage regulate protein synthesis, mimic hormones, alter blood chemistry
  96. Fat in In the Body: Table 5-1 p.150 (9 things)
    • 1. Energy Storage (fat is chief form of stored energy in body)
    • 2. Muscle Fuel --fats provide most of the energy to fuel muscular work
    • 3. Emergency Reserve (in times of illness/famine)
    • 4. Cushions (protects organs)
    • 5. Insulation (through temperature extremes)
    • 6. Phospholipids form cell membranes
    • 7. Raw materials (converted to hormones, bile, Vitamin D)
    • 8. Cholesterol Necessary for Brain function
    • 9. (Breathing and heart beating burns fat)
  97. In Food: Table 5-1 p.150 (8 things)
    • 1. Nutrient - fats provide essential fatty acids
    • 2. Calories - Concentrated energy source
    • 3. Transport - Fat soluble vitamins A,D,E,K along with some phytochemicals + aid in absorption
    • 4. Raw Materials- for making needed products
    • 5. Sensory appeal (taste,aroma)
    • 6. Stimulate appetite (probably due to satiety)
    • 7. Satiety (contribute to feelings of fullness)
    • 8. Texture (tender)
  98. Triglycerides class
    three fatty acids attached to a glycerol. Triglycerides are the body’s storage form of fat. Can differ in chain length and degree of saturation. Fatty acid types vary.
  99. Phospholipids class
    two fatty acids and a phosphate group attached to a glycerol. With the phosphate group attached, phospholipids are soluble in water, and the fatty acids are soluble in fat. This helps keep fat dispersed in water. Serves as an emulsifier. They also bind together to form cell membranes. Have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic (polar and non-polar) characteristics that help transport fats across these membranes. Generate signals inside cells in response to hormones (i.e. insulin) to help regulate body functions
  100. Sterols class
    interconnected rings of carbon atoms with side chains of C, H and O attached. Serves as raw material for making emulsifiers in bile, which is important in fat digestion. Also play roles in vitamin D, sex hormones, and other important compounds. Also important for the structure of cell membranes.
  101. Triglycerides structure
    (fatty-acids and oils) are the main form of fat in the body, making up 95% of the lipids in the body. They consist of one glycerol molecule and three fatty acid chains. Generally, the more unsaturated the fatty acids, the more liquid the fat is at room temperature, and the more saturated the fatty acids, the firmer the fat.
  102. omega-6 fatty acid or Linoleic acid structure
    (triglyceride) a polyunsaturated fatty acid with its endmost double bond six carbons from the end (omega end) of the carbon chain. More blood clotting, higher blood pressure and inflammation. Lowers all cholesterol--good and bad. (ex: in vegetable oils, mayo, seeds, nuts, poultry fat) To check saturation, put oil in a clear container and put it in the fridge. Watch for cloudiness. The least saturated oils remain clear. Found in vegetable oils, margarine, and salad dressings. Omega-6 includes linoleic acid and arachidonic acid.
  103. omega-3 fatty acid or Linolenic acid structure
    (triglyceride) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid with its endmost double bond 3 carbons from the omega end of the carbon chain. Prevents blood clotting, lowers blood pressure (keeps vessels pliable), protects against irregular heartbeats, reduces inflammation, and is essential for infant growth and development. Also lowers LDL. Excess of omega 3 increases risk of hemorrhage and stroke. (ex: canola oil, flaxseed oil, soybean oil, nuts and seeds, fatty fish) . Omega-3 includes linolenic acid, EPA and DHA.
  104. EPA, DHA structure
    • (triglyceride) in fish, seafood, human milk. DHA and EPA (contained in
    • fish oils) in fish tissue are important for unclotting blood, lowering
    • blood pressure, and is an essential fatty-acid. Very important in
    • infant growth and development
  105. Phospholipids structure
    • consist of one glycerol molecule, 2 fatty acids, and a molecule
    • containing phosphorus (phosphate--water soluble/polar end). (ex
    • lecithin) acts as an emulsifier--aids in breakdown of fats, holds water
    • to fat (ex: eggs contain lecithin, and are used in baking to hold polar
    • and non-polar ingredients together). make up cell membranes because they
    • are water-loving (hydrophilic) and fat-loving (hydrophobic)
  106. Sterols structure
    • consist of interconnecting rings of carbon atoms with side chains of
    • carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen attached. (Most commonly found in animal
    • products) (ex: cholesterol, which aids in creation of Vit. D and makes
    • the emulsifiers in bile, and sex hormones). Sterols other than
    • cholesterol exist in plants. Plant sterols resemble cholesterol in
    • structure and can inhibit cholesterol absorption in the human digestive
    • tract, thus lowering blood cholesterol levels. Not only can plant
    • sterols (phytosterol) inhibit cholesterol absorption, they also may
    • block absorption of other important nutrients as well. Cholesterol is
    • important in cell membrane structure. It can be made by the body, so
    • it’s not an essential nutrient.
  107. Lipid Digestion (3 things)
    Mouth: In infants, saliva is the first part of digestion (contains enzyme (lingual lipase) that helps break down milk fat)
  108. Lipid Absorption
    • Free fatty acids, phospholipids and monoglycerides cling together in
    • balls surrounded by bile emulsifiers. Bile shuttles lipids across water
    • mucus layer to waiting cells of intestinal villi, then the cells
    • extract the lipids. The bile may also be absorbed and reused or be
    • excreted by feces. The body is very efficient at digesting lipids, up to
    • 98% of fats consumed are absorbed! Very little fat is excreted by a
    • healthy system. Fat makes digestion take longer, so the more fat in a
    • meal the longer the digestion system action becomes. pg. 158 diagram
  109. Lipid Transportation (3 things)
    • Glycerol and shorter chains can pass directly through the cells of the
    • intestinal lining into the blood stream, where they travel UNASSISTED to
    • the liver. The larger ones must be reconverted back into triglycerides
    • and combine them with protein, which forms lipoproteins (chylomicrons).
    • fart. This must occur before they can be released into the lymph in
    • vessels that lead to the blood stream. Fats need special transport
    • vehicles-the lipoproteins-to carry them in watery body fluids.
    • • Lipoproteins: Assembled packages of lipid and protein molecules, which
    • serve as transport vehicles for lipids in blood and lymph. Larger
    • lipids fragments such as
    • • monoglycerides and long chain fatty acids are re-formed into
    • triglycerides and clustered together with proteins and phospholipids in
    • small intestine cells to form chylomicrons (one type of lipoprotein)
    • before they can be released into the lymph in vessels that lead to the
    • blood. Shorter chain fatty acids and glycerol can pass directly through
    • the cells of the intestinal lining where they can travel unassisted to
    • the liver.
  110. Types of Lipoproteins (distinguished by density, more buoyant = more fat content)
    • - Chylomicrons and other lipoproteins are clusters of protein and
    • phospholipids that are emulsifiers. They enable their large lipid
    • passengers to travel dispersed in the watery body fluids. Body tissues
    • can extract whatever fat they need from chylomicrons passing by in
    • bloodstream. Remnants are then picked up by liver, which dismantles
    • them and reuses their parts.
  111. Chylomicrons
    • mostly fat, neutral for risk of CVD)- formed when lipids from a meal are
    • combined with carrier proteins and phospholipids in the cells of the GI
    • tract. They transport food fats through the watery body fluids to the
    • liver and other tissues
    • a. made in GI tract
    • b. Deliver fat
  112. Three types of lipoproteins to carry fats besides chylomicrons
    VLDL, LDL, HDL
  113. VLDL
    • (very low density lipoprotein) carry triglycerides and other lipids made
    • in the liver to body cells for use. Neutral for CVD risk
    • a. made in liver
  114. LDL
    • (bad) (low density lipoprotein, VLDL with less fat) transport cholesterol and other lipids to tissues
    • a. Made from VLDL after VLDL have donated many of their triglycerides to body cells
    • b. drops off cholesterol- raises blood cholesterol level
    • c. increased risk of CVD
    • d. carry lipids that trigger inflammation: leads to heart disease (CVD)
    • e. larger, lighter and richer in cholesterol (more lipid, less protein)
    • f. can be easily damaged by oxidation, which contributes to the damage to the arteries of the heart and inflammation

    LDL rises with intakes of saturated and trans fats.
  115. HDL
    • (good) (high-density lipoproteins) “garbage trucks of circulation” -
    • return cholesterol from tissues to liver for dismantling and disposal
  116. Heart and Artery Disease
    • Diet too high in saturated fats or trans fats and too low in fish oils
    • increase risk of cancer. invites heart and artery disease. Saturated
    • and trans fatty acids both worsen the blood lipid profile.
  117. Cancer
    saturated fats pose the greatest public health hazard in terms of heart disease, NOT cancers
  118. Obesity
    A diet high in energy-rich fatty foods makes over-consumption of calories likely and encourages unneeded weight gain.
  119. Keep total fat intake between 20-35% of calories from mostly polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat sources
    keep saturated fat intake low, less than 10% of calories, and keep trans fat intake as low as possible.
  120. Fatty Acids
    some are essential and help lower cholesterol, and some raise cholesterol
  121. Saturated Fatty Acids
    Raise blood LDL by decreasing LDL reuptake in liver, which clogs arteries
  122. Monounsaturated
    helps lower bad cholesterol without affecting HDL, protective against CVD (peanut, canola, and olive oil, avocados)
  123. Polyunsaturated
    linoleic (omega 6) acid and linolenic (omega 3) acid
  124. Omega 3/Omega 6
    • More Omega 3, fewer Omega 6 = less abnormal blood clotting, mildly
    • lower blood pressure, less inflammation, lower risk of heart disease and
    • stroke (benefits from omega 3) too much omega 3 increases risk for
    • hemorrhaging. Only need more omega 3 because Americans tend to get less
    • in their diets. Need specifically more Omega 3, not a proportion of
    • both, because they compete for the same enzymes. Eat more fish!!!
  125. Food Sources of Saturated fats
    bacon, tropical oils, meat, butter, lard, animal products, coconut oil (exception to rule)
  126. Food Sources of Monounsaturated fats
    olive oil, canola oil, peanut oil, avocados, seeds
  127. Food Sources of Polyunsaturated
    vegetable oils (Soy, corn, sunflower, safflower, sesame, cottonseed, walnut), nuts and seeds, fatty fish
  128. Food Sources of Omega 3 (Linolenic)
    Linolenic is parent of Omega-3 family
  129. Food Sources of Omega 6 (Linoleic)
    Linoleic is parent of Omega-6 family
  130. Hydrogenated Plant Oils
    • Makes it stay fresh longer (works against oxidation)
    • • Changes their physical properties- addition of hydrogen across double bonds
    • • Prevents spoilage
    • • Makes them stable and harder when they are heated to high temperatures
    • • Makes food flaky and tender (baked goods)
    • • Higher smoking point
  131. Foods containing trans-fats
    • Chips, cookies, and crackers (snack products)
    • • Fast foods
    • • Cake and frosting
    • • Stick margarine
    • • Commercial fried chicken and fish products
    • • Other commercially prepared/processed foods (incl. breads)
    • • partially hydrogenated peanut butter
    • BASICALLY FRIED FOODS (but you can fry food using healthy oil, too - ex Chik-Fil-A uses peanut oil)
  132. Health implications of trans-fats
    • Pose risk to heart and arteries by raising blood LDL cholesterol
    • • Higher intakes lower beneficial HDL cholesterol
    • • Increase tissue inflammation, which can lead to heart disease
    • • Hydrogenation changes essential FA into their saturated or trans counterparts, losing health benefits of original raw oil
    • • Compared with the risk to heart health posed by saturated fat, the risk from trans fat is similar or slightly greater.

    ***Keep trans-fat intake as low as possible (<1% of cals)
  133. Hydrogenation
    • adding H to carbon chain where there used to be a double bond(breaking
    • the double bond). (ie making an UNSATURATED fat into a SATURATED fat).
    • If there is a kink in it and it still has the double bond this is called
    • the cis formation- what it’s called when the two hydrogen molecules are
    • on the same side of the double bond, as they are in the unsaturated
    • fatty acid, as opposed to on opposite sides in the trans fatty acid).
    • Trans is when the double bond is not broken, but the structure is
    • altered so that there is no longer a kink and hydrogens attach on
    • different sides of carbon chain - the fat chains can squish closer
    • together.
  134. DGA says less than 10% of daily calories should be saturated fat, <1% trans fats, <300 mg/day cholesterol.
  135. USDA has chart depending on activity, weight, height, etc. Example:
    active woman (19-30years)= 6.5 oz. daily from meats/legumes and 7 tsp.
    from oils, or active men (19-30years)= 7 oz. and 10tsp. (table on p.
    44).
  136. AMDR: 20-35% fat intake/31g or 7tsp oils (fats) for a 2400 calorie
    person(?) 480-840 kcal = 53-93g of fat (9 kcal = 1 fat grams) If 20-35%
    is what you want for fat intake, then 20-35% of 2400 calories is
    480-840 kcal, which with the conversion of 9 kcal for every 1 gram of
    fat, that’s 53-93 grams of fat.
  137. Reducing fat intake
    • Look for fat replacers, they are made from carbohydrates and protein and
    • provide same taste and texture as fats but with lower calories
    • • Artificial fats offer sensory properties of fat but none of the
    • calories
    • • Olestra also is a way to reduce fat intake, it is another artificial
    • fat
    • a. Olestra is not digested, and therefore doesn’t provide carbohydrates
    • to the body at all
    • b. Also has side effects including cramps and diarrhea - not really used
    • anymore
    • • Smaller portion sizes
    • • Choosing and reading labels and foods at the grocery store
    • • Cooking with healthier oils rather than solid fats like butter
    • • Flavorful fats (need less in order to flavor)
    • • Unsaturated oils (in PLACE of saturated)
    • • Revamp recipes
    • • Lower fat fast foods
    • • Increase the amount and variety of seafood in place of some meat and
    • poultry.
    • • Cheeses are the single greatest contributor of saturated fat in the
    • diet
  138. (PVT TIM HLL)
    the essential amino acid names: Phenylalanine, Valine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Isoleucine, Methionine, Histidine, Lysine, Leucine
  139. Structure of proteins
    • A strand of amino acids (Amino acid is the smallest part of a
    • protein)
    • ● All amino acids have the same backbone consisting of a single
    • carbon atom with both an amine group (the nitrogen containing part)
    • and a carboxyl group(acid group) attached to it.
    • ● Each also has a distinct chemical side chain (which determines
    • the amino acid’s function) attached to the center carbon of the backbone
    • ● All AA’s needed for protein synthesis:
    • ● Essential amino acids are required in making a protein because
    • without them, the body cannot make the proteins it needs to do its work.
    • ● All necessary types of amino acids need to be present to build a
    • protein.
    • ● Protein quality makes a difference with the amount and number of
    • AA’s.
    • ● If a protein can’t be completed because of lack of AA’s, the
    • protein will be broken down, they can’t be stored.
  140. Protein Digestion and Absorption (SSiT)
    • Stomach: when swallowed food arrives in the stomach, acid denatures the
    • protein strands and an enzyme (pepsin) breaks down the protein
    • ● Small intestine: enzymes from the pancreas and the intestine
    • split peptide strands into tripeptides, dipeptides, and amino acids.
    • The intestinal cells absorb and transfer amino acids and some larger
    • peptides into the bloodstream. The small intestine possesses separate
    • sites for absorbing different types of amino acids, and amino acids of
    • the same type compete for the same absorption sites, so ingesting a
    • large dose of any single one may limit absorption of other of its
    • general type.
    • ● Transportation: The blood transports amino acids into the liver,
    • to be used or released back out to the cells
  141. Protein Metabolism
    • 1. If energy needs not met or excess protein is consumed:
    • a. The Acid-side chain is metabolized and used for energy or stored as fat. (deamination)
    • b. The Amine group (N) is removed, and converted to urea.
    • 2. Dismantled to make nonessential amino acid (transamination)
  142. Roles of Protein
    • Production of antibodies
    • • Transporting substances ex: lipoproteins
    • • Maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance (edema is caused by lack of protein)
    • • Maintaining acid-base balance
    • • Blood clotting (against infection)
    • • Provide energy and glucose
    • o (THIS TAKES PRIORITY over other functions WHEN ENERGY IS TOO LOW!)
    • • Growth and maintenance
    • o tendons, ligaments, scars, filaments of hair, nails
    • • Regulation of gene expression
    • • Building enzymes, hormones, etc.
  143. Nitrogen Balance: more protein = more nitrogen
    • • Amount of nitrogen consumed compared with the amount excreted in a given time period
    • • Balanced - Nitrogen in (consumed) equal Nitrogen out (excreted)
    • • Positive - intake more than you excrete
  144. Foods in terms of protein amount and quality:
    • Is it close to what your body needs?
    • 1. High-quality - proteins provide enough of all the essential amino
    • acids needed by the body to create its own working proteins. Better
    • quality proteins for humans are found in animals, as they are the most
    • similar to us. (Over 90% absorbed from animal proteins)
    • 2. Low-quality - plant proteins
  145. Complementary Proteins
    • ● Two or more plant proteins whose amino acid assortments
    • complement each other in such a way that the essential amino acids
    • missing from one are supplied by the other.
    • ○ Rule of thumb: a grain paired with a legume.
    • Ex: rice and beans, pita bread and hummus, bread and peanut butter,
    • etc.
    • ○ Most easily digestible: meat (over 90%), legumes (80-90%), grains
    • (70-90%)
  146. AMDR for protein
    ● 10-35% of your daily intake
  147. 5. Calculate an individual’s recommended protein intake (DRI).
  148. Protein Deficiency
    • • Growth and resistance go down and kidney/heart problems can occur
    • • PEM (Protein-Energy Malnutrition): the world’s most wide spread malnutrition problem including: Marasmus, Kwasiorkor
  149. Marasmus
    • o LOW CALORIES AND LOW PROTEIN
    • o Severe deprivation of protein, energy, vitamins, minerals, calories
    • o develops slowly
  150. Kwashiorkor
    o ADEQUATE CALORIES
  151. Protein Excess
    • ● Over consumption provides no benefits and may pose health risks,
    • particularly for weakened kidneys
    • ● Heart disease from extra saturated fats in most high protein
    • foods- not from the protein itself, but from the fat in the foods, too
    • many prot-rich foods also crowd out fruits, vegs, whole grains
    • ● Kidney - in people w/ kidney stones or other kidney diseases,
    • high-prot diet may speed kidney decline
  152. Pros for vegetarians
    • ○ Defense against obesity (+)
    • ○ lowers saturated fat intake
    • ○ lots of vitamins and minerals
    • ○ lots of phytochemicals
    • ○ FIBER!!!!!!!!!!!!
    • ○ Defense against heart disease (+)
    • ○ Defense against high blood pressure (+)
    • ○ Defense against cancer (+)
    • May help prevent diabetes, osteoporosis, deverticular disease, and gallstones
  153. Cons for vegetarians
    • ○ Low energy for kids (-)
    • ○ Less available minerals (-) Ca, Fe, Zn
    • ○ Little Vitamin D from food (in fish and fortified milk) (-)
    • ○ Vitamin B-12 only naturally from animals (-)
    • ○ Have to be careful to get enough protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vt B12, Vit D, Omega-3 FA
    • ○ Not a good diet for children because it would not give them enough energy- to grow!
  154. Pros for omnivores
    • ○ Get a substantial amount of protein (meat products protein dense)
    • ○ have a varied diet- more likely to meet all your nutritional needs
  155. Cons for omnivores
    • ○ May get too much meat and crowd out fruits and veggies and whole grains, etc.
    • ○ Meats are higher in saturated fats
  156. Nutrients of particular concern
    • ● Protein
    • ● Iron
    • ● Zinc
    • ● Calcium
    • ● Vitamin B12
    • ● Vitamin D
    • ● Omega 3 fatty acid
  157. Characteristics and Uses of Vitamins
    • - an essential , noncaloric, organic nutrient needed in tiny amounts in
    • the diet. Help make possible the processes by which other nutrients are
    • digested, absorbed, and metabolized or built into body structures
    • - digest other nutrients, body structure, function of brain and body,
    • direct cells to convert one substance to another, A and D directly
    • influence genes and protein production. Guard tissues, blood clotting
  158. Fat/Water Soluble
    • - fat-soluble: absorbed into the lymph, travel in the blood in
    • association with protein carriers. Can be stored in the liver or with
    • other lipids in fatty tissues, so can become toxic. Require bile for
    • absorption. A D E K
    • - water-soluble: absorbed directly into the bloodstream, so not stored
    • (except B12) - excreted in urine, not toxic. C and B vitamins.
  159. Absorption of vitamins
    • o FS are absorbed like fats, first into the lymph, then the blood
    • o WS are absorbed directly into the blood
  160. Transport and storage of vitamins
    o FS Must travel with protein carriers in watery body fluids
  161. Excretion of vitamins
    o FS Not readily excreted
  162. Toxicity of vitamins
    • o FS Toxicities are likely from supplements, but occur rarely from food.
    • o WS Toxicities are unlikely but possible with high doses from supplements
  163. Requirements of vitamins
    • o FS needed in periodic doses (perhaps weeks or even months) because the body can draw on its stores
    • o WS Needed in frequent doses (perhaps 1-3 days) because the body does not store most of them to any extent.

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