COMM 381

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COMM 381
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2012-02-23 00:44:19
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COMM 381
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  1. What is symbolic interaction theory?
    inspired by mead's insights and based on the premise that people as selves creatively shape reality through social interaction.
  2. What is self-concept?
    The sum total of a person's thoughts and feels that defines the self as an object.
  3. Control theory of self-regulation?
    theory contending that through self awareness people compare their behavior to a standard and if there is a discrepancy, they work to reduce it.
  4. what is a self-schema?
    a cognitive structure that represents how you think about yourself in a particular domain and how you organize your experiences in that domain.
  5. What is explicit cognition?

    Implicit cognition?
    deliberate judgements which we are consciously aware of.

    automatically activated and we're not aware of.
  6. What was Bushman's article about?
    • Priming: 2 stages
    • Word association
    • lexical decision making

    violent movies and non violent movies (karate kid and gorilla's in the mist)
  7. Linz study was about?
    (violence) desensitization: 3 types of films viewed.

    possible sensitization on the last day
  8. Bandura's what?
    (violence) Bobo doll

    social learning theory

    sex played an important role in mimicking behavior
  9. what is a script?
    a schema that describes how a series of events is likely to occur in a well-known situation and which is used as guide for behavior and problem solving.
  10. what is schema?
    a schema is an organized structure of knowledge about a stimulus that is build up from experiences and that contains causal relations; it is a theory about how the social world works
  11. what's rubin's article about?
    uses and gratification
  12. critiques of cultivation
    • Correlation does not equal causation!
    • Oversimplified with respect to:
    • Interactions, content, selective consumption
    • International explanations inconsistent
    • Cannot explain HOW television exposure affects attitudes
    • Learning? Priming? Modeling?
    • Selective exposure and perception?
  13. Who wrote of Uses and Gratification?
    Rubin
  14. Critiques of Uses and Grats
    • Reliance on explicit self-report measures
    • More descriptive than theoretically grounded
    • Too diffuse and disconnected
    • Categories of use not as discrete as the labels suggest
    • Not linked up with effects research
  15. What study did Rudman do?
    • {bodies} Sexual objectification:
    • Part 1: Watch commercials
    • Part 2: lexical decision making
    • Part 3: Interview task
  16. What did Cooley coin?
    (bodies) The looking glass self: we see ourselves as a function of how we believe we are reflected in the eyes of others.
  17. Fredrickson did which study?
    (bodies) That swimsuit becomes you, focusing on self objectification
  18. What did Hebl do?
    (bodies) replicated fredrickson's experiment but put women in 1 pieces and men in speedos
  19. What is the different between trait and state of self objectification?
    • (bodies)
    • state is the current state subjects are in at the moment
    • trait is whether it's common in their life
  20. What was Aubrey's study about?
    • (bodies)
    • Sexual objectification: panel study: tv with sexually objectifying content over one year increased trait SO during year 2

    Only increased body surveillance in men (with tv and mags)

    Trait SO is more stable in women
  21. What were limitations to Aubrey's study?
    • bodies
    • "judges" that judged content were almost all women (in a graduate objectivity seminar)
    • Men may have dropped after first wave because they realized it was "women issues"
    • Their may be a drench effect for men, and a drip effect for women due to the diff representations in the media
  22. What was harrison's study about?
    (bodies) Thin TV persona and eating disorders: He said if women were attracted to thin media persona, they were more likely to have eating disorders, body dissatisfaction, etc.
  23. What were the limitations of harrison's study?
    • (bodies)
    • Thin women are attracted to thin women.
    • Cross sectional survey/ best method would be longitudinal
    • real tv characters warrant that tv characters were attractive on other grounds besides their looks
  24. What was schooler and ward's study on bodies about?
    (bodies) eating disorders and ethnicity:

    • black women were less effected by white women: 2 explanations
    • black casts shows have larger women
    • black and white women may use different methods to compare themselves
  25. What 3 studies did davis do?
    • (gender)
    • 1: only women for whom the activated stereotype was self-relevant underperformed on a subsequent math test
    • 2: exposure to stereotypic commercials led women to avoid math items in favor of verbal items
    • 3: women who viewed commercials indicated less interest in educational vocational options in which they were susceptible to stereotype threat and more interest in fields they were immune to stereotype threat
  26. What are three contrasting explanations to davis's study of stereotyping?
    • (gender)
    • 1. Fredrickson's study: objectification leaves women to have less focus because their worried about their image
    • 2. modeling (social learning theory)
    • 3. ideomotor
  27. What was Jack Glascock's study on?
    Gender Roles in Prime time network television.
  28. What were the two phases of glascock's study?
    • 1; measuring demographics and speaking times of times in prime time tv
    • 2; measuring behaviors

    (gender)
  29. What was the overall finding of glascock's content analysis?
    (gender) Females are underrepresented, but from 1970 to now, there has been a gradual increase in their presence on television.

    He suggests this could be attributed to the fact that most of the people behind the cameras were men.
  30. which article used the term heteroflexibility?
    Diamond.
  31. 3 problems with the tv depictions of same-sex
    • (1) package heteroflexibility in a manner designed to specifically attract and titillate young male viewers;
    • (2) reify outmoded, dichoto-mous models of sexuality by presenting same-sex experimentation as a means of confirming one’s essential heterosexuality; and
    • (3) obscure the sociopolitical context of ‘compulsory heterosexuality’
  32. What is diamond suggesting?
    (sexuality) bear in mind that whether positive or negative, such depictions [of same sex interactions] reliably serve a dominant social order that continues to prioritize the regulation and control of female sexuality.
  33. What did schiappa's study find?
    (sexuality) Increased viewing frequency and parasocial interaction were found to correlate with lower levels of sexual prejudice–a relationship that was most pronounced for those with the least amount of social contact with lesbians and gay men.
  34. What is the contact hypothesis?
    under appropriate conditions, interpersonal contact is one of the most effective ways to reduce prejudice between majority and minority group members.
  35. 4 conditions must be met to reduce prejudice through contact hypothesis
    • Participants must feel of equal status
    • share common goals
    • have sustained and non-superficial contact
    • and not be opposed by asalient authority
  36. What is ATLG?
    Attitudes towards lesbians and gays (herek)
  37. What was the mastro stern study focused on?
    • (race)
    • 1 week content analysis of commercials across 6 networks
    • Focused on race representation, varying by age, attractiveness, SES in commercials
  38. What did the dixon study aim to show?
    • (race)
    • heavy new viewers v light news viewers
    • Heavy viewers were found to be less comfortable with black perp
  39. The dixon studied hypothesized...?
    Consistent with the hypotheses, participants who reported higher levels of television news viewing exhibited the most emotional concern after watching a crime story that contained a dark-skinned Black perpetrator.
  40. What are heterosexual dyads?
    • }opposite sex pairing that implies or conforms to a heterosexual dynamic
    • ‚ó¶Jack and Karen; Will and Grace; Jack and Rosario
  41. what is Heteronormativity?
    the practices by which heterosexuality is constituted as a natural and compulsory norm, against which homosexuality is defined as its negative opposite
  42. What did clark assert as the four stages of representation?
    • Non-recognition: absence from media
    • Ridicule: comic relief, stereotyped
    • Regulation: preserving status quo
    • Respect: diverse representation
  43. Most common race representation in ads by Stern and Mastro?
    • Whites—technology and food; at home
    • Blacks—financial services and food; outdoors
    • Asians—technology; at work
    • Latinos—soaps/deodorants; outdoors
    • Native Americans—retailers, automotive
  44. Stone found what results when testing black v white natural sport ability?
    • Black performance inhibited by “sports intelligence” and race prime Anxiety increased
    • White performance inhibited by “natural ability” prime Anxiety increased slightly
  45. What is the weapon effect? Payne
    Black faces increased misidentification of tool as gun, reverse was found for White faces Increased error with shorter deadlines

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