Nutrition Exam 1

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Candicebyl
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137012
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Nutrition Exam 1
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2012-02-23 12:53:30
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Nutrition 3000 Exam
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Nutrition Study guide 1
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  1. Define nutrition
    the study of foods, their nutrients and other chemical constituents, and their effects on the body
  2. nutrient
    Chem. Substances in foods that nourish the body (Water, carbs, fats, protein, vitamins, and minerals)
  3. essential nutrients / non essential nutrients
    nutrients we must get from our food sources / nutrients the body makes on its own or isnt needed
  4. malnutrition
    Poor Nutrition
  5. Nutrient Dense Foods
    Foods that contain high nutrients compaired to their kCal
  6. Empty Calorie
    Foods that contain excess kCal with little nutrients
  7. Organic
    Nutrients that contain carbon
  8. DRI
    • Daily Reference Intakes
    • -designed for healthy individuals
    • *most scientific standards
    • -based on the most current research
    • -age/gender specific

    • 4 Subcategories:
    • *RDA
    • *EAR
    • *AI
    • *UL
  9. RDA
    • Recommended Dietary Allowances
    • -represent nutrient intake goals for individuals
    • -derived from EAR (Estimated average requirements)
    • -covers the needs of 98% of the population
    • -Built in MARGIN OF SAFETY
    • *not a minimal requirement, has padding
    • *indv. needs
    • RDA's are set near the top end of the range of the pop's est. reqrmnts. to ensure that the nutrient RDA meet the need of most healthy people
    • *given nutrient is based on enough scientific evidence to expect the the needs of almost all healthy people will be met
  10. EAR
    • Estimated Average Requirement
    • -Population wide average nutrient requirements for nutrition reasearch and policy making
    • -basis upon which RDA's are set
  11. AI
    • Adequate Intake
    • -nutrient intake goals for individuals
    • -set whenever specific data are insufficent to set an EAR
    • *usually a range of suggested intake
    • *may be used as a nutritent goal for individuals
    • -relies heavily on scientific judgement because sufficent evidence is lacking
  12. UL
    • Upper Limits of Intake
    • -for potentially toxic nutrients
    • -intakes above the UL are likely to cause illness from toxicity
  13. DV
    Daily Values

    • -Cho: 58%
    • -Protein: 12%
    • -Fat: 30% (Sat fat 10%)
    • -Simple Sugar: 10%
  14. State the kcal per gm of cho, pro, fat, alcohol.
    • Cho-4
    • Pro-4
    • Fat-9
    • Alchohol-7
  15. Calculate the kcal in a food based on the gms of cho, pro and fat in that food

    ex:how many calories are in 3 gms of fat?
    27
  16. Identify groups that are at greatest risk for malnutrition.
    • -obese
    • -elderly
    • -low income
    • -any time growth is rapid
    • -pregnant women
  17. Describe how DRI’s/RDA’s are set, and for whom they are designed
    They are meant for healthy people and are set by a group of highly qualified scientist who use the results of thousands of research studies to set standards that define the amounts of energy, nutrients and other dietary components that best support health.
  18. Name the groups in ChooseMyPlate, the number of servings recommended from each group, and what constitutes a serving
    • *Grains= 6 oz.
    • Serving size=1 slice of bread, 1/2c cooked rice, pasta, cereal
    • *Veggie= 2.5c
    • Serving size=1c/ 2c fresh leafy greens
    • *Fruit= 2c
    • Serving size=1/2c fresh/1/4c dried

    • *Protein= 5.5oz
    • Serving size 1 oz./ 1 egg/ 1/4c legumes

    • *Milk= 3 cup
    • Serving Size 1 cup/ 1.5 oz cheese

    • *Oil= 6 tsp
    • Serving size
  19. Identify the components of a nutrition assessment, and what each component indicates
    • a. Diet History
    • -primary deficiency

    • b. Health History
    • - secondary problems in the body

    • c. Lab Tests
    • - declining nutrients stores

    • d. Physical Exam
    • - outward signs and symptoms

    • e. Anthropometric Measurements
    • - weight: short term
    • -height: long term
    • -length: measurement of height used for infants
  20. Identify the key surveys that monitor nutrition and health status in the US population
    *National Nutrition Survey

    *National Health and Neutrino Exam Surveys (NHANES)

    *Continuing survey of food intakes by Individuals (CFSII)

    *National Health Goals

    • *Healthy People 2020
  21. National Nutrition Survey
    -National nutrition monitoring Program uses survey research to collect data on foods people eat and peoples health status

    -data collected is used for nutrition policy food assistance programs and food supply regulation
  22. National Health and Neutrino Exam Surveys (NHANES)
    -50,000 people surveyed

    -records measure of their health status
  23. Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII)
    -Records what people have actually eaten for two days

    -compares the foods they have choosen with the recommended food selections
  24. National Health Goals
    -Healthy People is a national public health initative under the U.S. Department of health and human services that is published every 10 years

    • -Identifies the most significant threats to health
    • -focuses efforts on eliminating these threats
  25. Healthy People 2020
    -Redirects our attention from health care to the determinants of health in our social and physical environments

    -contains 1200 objectives in 42 topic areas designed to serve as a frame for improving the health of all people in the US.
  26. Discuss the role of nutrition in disease prevention
  27. Discuss the role of nutrition in disease prevention.
    Dietary Guidelines:

    • Heart Disease:
    • -High animal fat and cholesterol intake, low fruit and veggie and certain vitamins intakes

    • Cancer:
    • -Low veggie, fruit, fiber/excess body fat and alcohol intake

    • Diabetes:
    • -excess body fat, high-fat, low fiber

    • Cirrhosis:
    • -excess alcohol & poor diets

    • Hypertension:
    • -high sodium and alcohol, high body fat

    • Iron deficiency anemia:
    • -low ironTooth decay:-excessive sugar consumption

    • Osteoporosis:
    • -inadequate intakes of calcium and vit. D

    • Obesity:
    • -excess calories and high fat
  28. Name the food groups of the Diabetic Exchanges
    • -Fruits
    • -Milk
    • -Starches
    • -Unstarchy Vegetables
    • -Meats & Meat Substitutes
    • -Sweets, Desserts & other Carbs
    • -Fats
  29. FRUITS

    *identify:
    -serving sizes
    -gms. of: -cho, pro, fat and kcal in each group
    • -Carbs: 15
    • -Protein: 0
    • -Fat: 0
  30. Meats & Meat Substitutes:

    *identify:
    -serving sizes
    -gms. of: -cho, pro, fat and kcal in each group
    • Lean:-Carbs: 0
    • -Protein: 7
    • -Fat: 0-3

    • Medium-Fat
    • -Carbs: 0
    • -Protein: 7
    • -Fat: 4-7

    • High Fat-Carbs: 0
    • -Protein: 7
    • -Fat: 8+

    • Plant Based Proteins:
    • -Carbs: 0
    • -Protein: 7
    • -Fat: Varies
  31. MILK

    *identify:
    -serving sizes
    -gms. of: -cho, pro, fat and kcal in each group
    • Fat Free (Low 1%)
    • -Carbs: 12
    • -Protein: 8
    • -Fat: 0-3

    • Reduced Fat (2%)
    • -Carbs: 12
    • -Protein: 8
    • -Fat: 5

    • Whole
    • -Carbs: 12
    • -Protein: 8
    • -Fat: 8
  32. STARCH

    *identify:
    -serving sizes
    -gms. of: -cho, pro, fat and kcal in each group
    • -Carbs: 15
    • -Protein: 0-3
    • -Fat: 0-1
  33. NON-STARCHY VEGETABLES

    *identify:
    -serving sizes
    -gms. of: -cho, pro, fat and kcal in each group
    • -Carbs: 5
    • -Protein: 2
    • -Fat: 0
  34. SWEETS, DESSERTS, & OTHER CARBS

    *identify:
    -serving sizes
    -gms. of: -cho, pro, fat and kcal in each group
    • -Carbs: 15
    • -Protein: Varies
    • -Fat: Varies
  35. FATS

    *identify:
    -serving sizes
    -gms. of: -cho, pro, fat and kcal in each group
    • -Carbs: 0
    • -Protein: 0
    • -Fat: 5
  36. Alchohol


    *identify:
    -serving sizes
    -gms. of: -cho, pro, fat and kcal in each group
    • -Carbs: Varies
    • -Protein: 0
    • -Fat: 0
  37. Discuss the Dietary Guideline Recommendations
    • a. Reduce Serving size
    • b. Eat more fruits and vegetables
    • c. Balance calories (avoid oversized portions)
    • d. Drink more water
  38. Identify factors that affect eating behaviors
    • a. hunger
    • -psychologic signal to eat

    • b. appetite
    • - desire to eat
  39. Define:

    -Natural foods
    -Organic Foods
    -Health Foods

    *which has a legal definition
    • Natural:
    • -Natural
    • *no artifical colors/flavors
    • -Not made in lab
    • -No preservative

    • Organic:
    • -Grown without pesticides or GMO's
    • -Substainable/locally grown
    • -Has legal definition

    • Health:
    • -Nutrient dense
    • -Not processed

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