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  1. Phonetics
    The stystematic identification and description of distinctive speech sounds in a language
  2. Phonology
    The study of language sounds
  3. Phonemes
    The smallest units of sound that make a difference in meaning in a language
  4. Morphemes
    The smallest units of sound that carry a meaning in language
  5. Morphology
    The sutdy of the patterns or rules of word formation in a language.
  6. Syntax
    The patterns or rules by which words are arranged into phrases and sentences
  7. Grammar
    The entire formal structure of a language, including morphology and syntax
  8. language family
    A group of languages descended from a single ancestral language
  9. Glottochronology
    a method for identifying the approzimate time that languages branched off from a common ancestor.
  10. Core vocabulary
    The most basic and longest-lasting words in any language.
  11. gendered speech
    distinc male and female speech patterns which vary across social and cultural settings.
  12. dialects
    varying forms of a language that reflect particular regions, occupations, or social calsses and that are similar enough to be mutually intelligible
  13. gestures
    facial expressions and body patterns that convery intended as well as subconscious messages
  14. kinesics
    a system and notating and analyzing postures, facial expressions, and body motions that convey messages
  15. proxemics
    the study of people's perception and use of space
  16. paralanguage
    specific voice effects tht accompany speech and contribute to communication
  17. tonal language
    a language in which the sound pitch of a spoken word is essential the the word's meaning
  18. whistled speech
    exchange of whistled words using a phonetic emulation of the sounds produced in spoken voice; also known as whistled language
  19. personality
    the distinctive way a person thinks, feels, and behaves
  20. Margaret Mead
    • Anthropologist that worked in the 1920's and 30's
    • Coming of Age in Samoa; later criticized for accuracy
    • worked with adolescence
    • student of Franz; believed that culture socializes
  21. Ruth Benedict
    • emotional "types" of cultures
    • Apollonian (Zuni) v. Dionysian (Kwakiutl)
  22. Sapir
    All about the language!

    • Strong: language affects culture
    • Weak: language limits culture
  23. enculturation
    making people fit the model
  24. dependence v. independence
    cooperation v. individualism
  25. Orientations
    • Object awareness
    • spatial orientation
    • temporal orientation
    • normative orientation-- moral ideals/principles
  26. naming
    is crucial!
  27. modal personality
    statistical concept; most frequently occurring
  28. national character
    traditions; sometimes connected to hatred of oustiders
  29. chu
    core values; values promoted by a particular culture
  30. convergent evolution
    started in different places, developed similar cultural adaptations
  31. parallel evolution
    started similar... remained similar
  32. culture core
    cultural featurs that are fundamental in the societys way of making its living-- including food producing techniques, knowledge of available resources, and the work arrangements involved in applying those techniques to the local environment
  33. culture area
    a geographic region in which a number of societis follow similar patterns of life
  34. foraging
    • hunting, fishing and gathering wild plant foods
    • bushmen!
    • hunters/gatherers are considered more sedentary
    • organization: semi nomadic bands
    • **can only forage a reasonable distance away from water
    • egalitarian: equal division of labor; little to no surplus
  35. Neolithic
    the new stone age; now people have domesticated plants/food
  36. horticulture
    • accomplished with simple hand held tools
    • slash and burn or swidden farming is an example of this
    • is a sustainable form of agriculture in areas of low population density
  37. agriculture
    producing food on farms; technology other than hand tools used, such as irrigation, fertilizers, etc.
  38. pastoralism
    breeding and managing large herds of domesticated grazing and browsing animals, such as goats, sheep, cattle, horses, llamas, or camels.
  39. nomadic pastoralism
    winters in the summer, meadows in the winter
Card Set
AN101 Test #1
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