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The stystematic identification and description of distinctive speech sounds in a language
The study of language sounds
The smallest units of sound that make a difference in meaning in a language
The smallest units of sound that carry a meaning in language
The sutdy of the patterns or rules of word formation in a language.
The patterns or rules by which words are arranged into phrases and sentences
The entire formal structure of a language, including morphology and syntax
A group of languages descended from a single ancestral language
a method for identifying the approzimate time that languages branched off from a common ancestor.
The most basic and longest-lasting words in any language.
distinc male and female speech patterns which vary across social and cultural settings.
varying forms of a language that reflect particular regions, occupations, or social calsses and that are similar enough to be mutually intelligible
facial expressions and body patterns that convery intended as well as subconscious messages
a system and notating and analyzing postures, facial expressions, and body motions that convey messages
the study of people's perception and use of space
specific voice effects tht accompany speech and contribute to communication
a language in which the sound pitch of a spoken word is essential the the word's meaning
exchange of whistled words using a phonetic emulation of the sounds produced in spoken voice; also known as whistled language
the distinctive way a person thinks, feels, and behaves
- Anthropologist that worked in the 1920's and 30's
- Coming of Age in Samoa; later criticized for accuracy
- worked with adolescence
- student of Franz; believed that culture socializes
- emotional "types" of cultures
- Apollonian (Zuni) v. Dionysian (Kwakiutl)
All about the language!
- Strong: language affects culture
- Weak: language limits culture
making people fit the model
dependence v. independence
cooperation v. individualism
- Object awareness
- spatial orientation
- temporal orientation
- normative orientation-- moral ideals/principles
statistical concept; most frequently occurring
traditions; sometimes connected to hatred of oustiders
core values; values promoted by a particular culture
started in different places, developed similar cultural adaptations
started similar... remained similar
cultural featurs that are fundamental in the societys way of making its living-- including food producing techniques, knowledge of available resources, and the work arrangements involved in applying those techniques to the local environment
a geographic region in which a number of societis follow similar patterns of life
- hunting, fishing and gathering wild plant foods
- hunters/gatherers are considered more sedentary
- organization: semi nomadic bands
- **can only forage a reasonable distance away from water
- egalitarian: equal division of labor; little to no surplus
the new stone age; now people have domesticated plants/food
- accomplished with simple hand held tools
- slash and burn or swidden farming is an example of this
- is a sustainable form of agriculture in areas of low population density
producing food on farms; technology other than hand tools used, such as irrigation, fertilizers, etc.
breeding and managing large herds of domesticated grazing and browsing animals, such as goats, sheep, cattle, horses, llamas, or camels.
winters in the summer, meadows in the winter