EVIDENCE OF BREACH:
RES IPSA LOQUITUR
The thing speaks for itself -- deals with those situations where the fact that a particular injury occurred may itself establish or tend to establish a breach. Where the res ipsa element has been proven, plaintiff has made a prima facie case and no directed verdict may be given for defendant.
Plaintiff required to show the following:
-- the accident causing his injury is the type that would not occur unless someone was negligent;
-- neligence is attributable to defendant; often can be satisfied by showing that defendant was in exclusive control of the instrumentality that caused the injury (where more than one person might have been in control, res ipsa loquitur may not be used to establish a prima facie case against an individual);
-- plaintiff must also establish that the injury was not attributable to him, but may do so by his own testimony.