Card Set Information
chem101 test 2 c.11 Oribtals etc.
Energy being transmitted from one place to another by light is _________
electromagnetic radiation (waves on a seagull!)
the distance between two consecutive wave peaks is the ______________
the __________ indicates how many wave peaks pass a certain point per given time period.
frequency (nu, "v")
a beam of light traveling through space is a stream of tiny packets of energy called _____________
only certain values are allowed (i.e. all hydrogen atoms have the same set of discrete energy levels). They are _______
the ____________ model of the atom describes how the electron's position is represented (not a circular orbit)
a representation of the space occupied by an electron in an atom (the probability distribution for the electron) is known as a(n) __________
Red wavelength photons are ________________ while blue wavelengths are ______.
Long, short (short length = higher amplitude = more energy)
a model succeeding the Bohr Model of hydrogen. This model explains electron orbits for atoms fall in a probability map:
The wave mechanical model
1S orbital is the ______________ energy state, the "ground state"
______________ levels, (represented by n=1, n=2 etc) hold each layer of orbitals (1s, 2s 2p, 3s 3p 3d� etc) within each (n) "electron apartments"
principle energy levels
principle energy levels are divided into __________, which increase with (n) (such as s, p, d, f)
S sublevel holds ___ electrons max
P sublevel holds a max of ___ electrons
D sublevel holds a max of ___ electrons
10 (5 boxes*2electrons)
F sublevel holds a max of ____ electrons
an atomic orbital can hold a maximum of 2 electrons, and those electrons must have opposite spins. this is the _____ principle
Pauli exclusion principle
1s^1 is an example of Hydrogen's ________________
an orbital diagram/ box diagram would be represented by a box with ____ inside
arrows ( indicating electron spin)
the electrons in the outermost principle energy level of an atom are _____ electrons-- Important because these are the ones that form bonds
inner electrons of a lower sublevel that do not form bonds are called ___________ electrons
Family 1 & 2 have __ outermost orbitals, while transition metals have __ and Families 3-8 have __ outermost orbital
s; d; p
__________ series fills the 7 4f orbitals
_____________ series (14 elements) fills the 7 5f orbitals
When an orbital contains d sublevels, the next principle energy level (n+1) will have an 's' sublevel. Which will fill first?
the n+1 S orbital
Element families/groups ____ are main group elements, or representative elements.
____ tend to lose electrons to form positive ions, while ___________ tend to gain an electron and become negative ions
the energy required to remove an electron from an individual atom in the gas phase is _____________
(From left to right across a given PT period): what trends occurs? name 3:
(1) atomic size decreases --which means� (2) nuclear energy increases! & (3) electronegativity increases (up to 4.0)
(From top to bottom across a given Family/Group): what trends occur?
Atomic size increases (needing larger orbitals to hold greater amounts of electrons)
a period has the same _______________ level, while a family/group has the same ___________
principle energy level (period 4 = n=4); number of electrons in the outermost orbital (Group 5= 5 electrons)