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What was the scriptural rationale behind monasticism?
- * Many Christians understood Scripture to teach a very rigorous lifestyle (mark 8:34, Matthew 10:21)
- * Example would be Tertullian�s treatment of celibacy- no sex in heaven so no sex on earth
- * Anchoritic monasticism began to be practiced in the deserts in the East (Syria, Egypt)
What were the three renunciations that characterized monasticism?
- * Chastity- renouncing the flesh
- * Poverty- renouncing the world
- * Obedience- renouncing the will
How could one characterize the life of a monk?
- * �athletes for God� or desert prayer warriors
- * Rigorous asceticism:
- o Fasting- bring one closer to God and enable one to battle with the devil. Eating every other day was common.
- o Sleep deprivation- giving into sleep was considered lazy, letting down guard. Some slept 1 hour while others tried to go 20 nights without it.
- o Solitude- moving into desert enabled person to focus on own struggle against temptation and devil
- o Prayer- goal of praying without ceasing was believed to be attainable
What did Antony, Pachomius, Basil the Great and Benedict of Nursia contribute to monasticism?
- * Antony
- o Began journey as a result of hearing Jesus� instruction to the young rich ruler- sell everything you have
- o Known for victory over temptation
- o Life of Antony caused many to imitate him
- * Pachomius
- o Popularized cenobite (communal) monasticism
- o Built 9 monasteries for men, 2 for women
- o Organized communities with set hours for practicing spiritual disciplines
- * Basil the Great
- o Placed monastic life under control of bishops in order to bring more order to the movement and to shun individualistic displays of piety
- * Benedict of Nursia
- o Founded a monastery at Monte Cassino, between Rome and Naples
- o Monastery was conceived as a permanent, self-contained, self supported garrison of soldiers for Christ
- o Brought modernization to the monastic life- combining spiritual/practical activities
What were the strengths and weaknesses of monasticism?
- * Strengths:
- o Keen insight into human nature was made possible as monks who fled the world discovered that the trouble was within
- o Monks kept scholarship alive when Barbarians conquered Roman Empire
- * Provided education, copied manuscripts of the Bible/patristic/ classical literature, and preserved and recorded history
- o Provided a place of refuge for outcasts and services to poor
- * Weaknesses
- o Distinction between higher and lower levels of Christian life became more evident and acceptable
- o Vow of chastity showed tendencies of discrediting the idea of traditional family
- o Some of the most committed Christians removed themselves from society (monastery or desert)
How did Rome become recognized as one of the leading areas of Christianity?
- * Natural advantages of Rome:
- o Capital of the Roman Empire- city full of people and had plenty of resources usually has the largest and wealthiest church
- o Power vacuum- remained stable in spite of instability everywhere else
- * Prestige of the Roman Church
- o Cult of martyrs began taking shape- increasingly prestigious
- o No major church rival- less concern with competition/ compromise
What biblical text was used to support the claims of the papacy to be superior to other church leaders?
* Matthew 16:18
How did Constantinople seek recognition as the new Rome?
* The council of Nicea and Constantinople declared that the �Bishop of Constantinople shall have the primacy of honor after the Bishop of Rome, because Constantinople is the New Rome.� Further enhanced the Council of Chalcedon- declared it had equal privileges with the �elder Rome.� Bishops of Rome argue that papal authority comes from the Bible, not councils.
What were the contributions of Leo, Gelasius, and Gregory?
- * Leo
- o Assumed civic leadership and developed church doctrine
- o Well respected because he persuaded Attila the Hun to turn back from Rome as the Barbarians were destroying everything
- o Viewed as an emperor because he stopped murder
- o Distinguished the Bishops of Rome from all others- Vicar of Peter
- o Claimed the authority of other Bishops was limited to own diocese
- o Authored the Tome- basis of Chalcedonian definition on the person of Christ
- * Gelasius
- o Instituted moral oversight over political leaders
- o Recognized two spheres of authority- spiritual and temporal (kings must submit to church in spiritual matters)
- o First Pope to receive the title � Vicar of Christ�
- * Gregory
- o Influential in establishing the prestige of the Papacy in the Middle Ages
- o Began a rebuilding process for Western Europe- collect taxes, administer relief to poor
- o Assumed military functions
- o Extended influence of church westward
- o Established much of catholic orthodoxy
In what ways did politics, culture, and theology reflect the divisions between the East and West?
- * Political unity
- o Rome and Constantinople were major political centers in Roman Empire
- o Emperor Theodosius the Great divided Roman Empire between his two sons- one in east and one in west
- o Spread of Islam weakened in the east as Christians were in the minority
- * Cultural unity
- o Latin- language of west, Greek- language of east
- o People of west tended to think/ write impractical terms, while people in the east were more mystical/ speculative
- * Theological unity
- o West viewed pope as head of church while east shared authority among patriarchs
- o West accused the east of Caeseropapism
- o West argued for celibacy among clergy and used unleavened bread for Eucharist- east allowed clergy to marry and used leavened bread
- o Tensions increased as missionaries converged in same location
How did the use of icons, filioque, and the role of Michael Cerularius serve to bring about further divisions?
- * Icons
- o Very prominent in eastern Orthodox churches
- o Controversy because icons seemed to be the same as idols- those who used them were punished by God and some were tortured by leader
- * Filioque
- o Means the son
- o Council wanted to take out the term in the Nicene Creed
- o The creed was known to churches in east and west- west believed the Holy spirit proceeds from the father and son
- * Michael
- o Appoints Photius to patriarchal office- leaned toward secular world
- o Photian Schism divides east and west
What was the reason behind the crusades?
- * Urban offered remission of sins for everyone who fought and or died in battle
- * Economic factors
- * Sense of adventure
How did they serve to further distance the Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church from one another?
- * Overall were a failure
- * Jerusalem was captured by the Egyptians and remained in Muslim control until 1917
- * East and west never had the same relationship as before, crusade weakened churches in the east and assumed the superiority of the west
- * Relationships between the Christians and Muslims have been difficult
What issues served to undermine papal supremacy?
- * Rising nationalism- people began to see themselves loyal to a nation and reacted adversely when they believed the church was impeding their process
- * Moral decline- many priests took concubines/ engaged in illicit relationships
- * Excessive taxation- tithes, annates, purveyance, right of spoil, Peter�s pence, and other fees
- * Theological imprecision- church had major influence in beliefs about God, but no doctrinal system they could understand
What was the Babylonian Captivity of the church?
- * Philip IV of France and Edward 1 of England at war
- * Both men taxed their citizens in order to support war, taxing clergy became an effective way of raising support
- * Pope Boniface
- o Issued a papal order which threatened excommunication for any lay ruler who taxed the clergy
- o Further conflict with Philip of France
- * Avignon Papacy
- o Serious decline in finances led to increase in creative taxes
- o Anticlericalism became more pronounced
How did the papal schism come about and how was it resolved?
- * Came about:
- o Under threat of mob violence, College of Cardinals elected an Italian as Pope- immediately falls out of favor with everybody so they elected new Pope. Now there are 2
- * Countries were divided, money was raised to support both offices, and questions arose over the validity
- o Council of Pisa created 3 Popes
- * Resolved:
- o Council of Constance- each nation was granted one vote and a unanimous vote was required to settle this issue
How did Humanism and the invention of the printing press help the Reformation to come about?
* Humanism:o Led to the practice of textual criticism, which seeks to determine an accurate reading of ancient texts* Printing Presso Reformation ideas could be produced quickly and cheaply- easily replaced, everyone who could read was included, and books could go where people could not
What was the significance of the conciliar movement with respect to papal authority?
- * Canon law declared that only the pope could call a general council to decide matters of the faith.
- * Majority of cardinals from both sides determined that necessity overruled previous canon law- called council to settle the issue of who was the proper pope
What were the contributions of Erasmus, Wycliffe and Hus to the decline of papal supremacy?
- * Erasmus
- o Most famous Christian humanist
- o Discovered Catholic translation is false
- o Exposed doctrines taught by the church, but not found in scripture (penance= making up for sin, repentance= stop sinning)
- * Wycliffe
- o �Morning Star of the Reformation�
- o On Divine Lordship= God has complete control over creation, God lends authority to individuals, such authority can be repealed
- o On the Power of the Pope= advocated biblical authority, advocated translation of the Bible into English
- o On the Eucharist= rejected transubstantiation, priests could not withhold communion
- * Hus
- o Similar ideas to Wycliffe
- o Bible is supreme authority in the church
- o Christ is the head of the church , not the Pope
- o Summoned to the Council of Constance to defend his views, but was burned at stake for heresy
What was the Gelasian principle, and how did various popes attempt to implement it?
- * Recognized the pope as being above the emperor
- * Since the church must give account to God for the deeds of kings (emperors), the king must submit to the church in spiritual matters
- * Emperors function was to protect the church- church plays mediator between us and God
- * Relationship was symbolized in a coronation ceremony
What was significant about�Charlemagne becoming Holy Roman Emperor?
- * Pope Leo appealed to Charlemagne for help
- * He convinced Charlemagne he was innocent by placing hand on Bible and taking oath
- * Charlemagne was crowned by the Pope as Holy Roman emperor- the pope still viewed himself has having authority over emperor (future popes will continue to crown emperors)
- * This was significant since Charlemagne had conquered areas stretching from France, Belgium, Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany, Australia, and Italy.
- * Relationship between the two soon changed
How did the Donation of Pepin and the Pseud-Isidorian Decretals enhance the claims of papal power?
- * Donation of Pepin= made pope a temporal ruler over the Papal States
- * Pseud-Isidorian= contained decrees from popes prior, included donation of Constantine (stated emperor had given land and domination to the pope, declared Roman Bishop had power over all Bishops)
What did the practices of lay investiture and simony suggest about the nature of politics in the church during the middle ages?
- * Lay investiture= Bishop knelt before the emperor, promised him loyalty, and received in turn a symbol of authority
- * Simony= buying and selling of church offices
- * Having power is not cheap
What was the significance of the interdict?
* Interdict was the excommunication of an entire nation- spiritual weapon
Be Familiar with the Following:
- Edict of Milan- Letter signed by emperors Constantine and Licinius that proclaimed religious toleration in the Roman Empire
- Julian the Apostate- Roman Emperor, philosopher, and Greek writer, attempted to revive religious practices at the cost of Christianity
- �All truth is God�s truth wherever it may be found�-
- �What has Athens to do with Jerusalem?�-
- Theodosius- last emperor to rule over both the eastern and western halves of the Roman Empire
- On first principles-
- Hexapala- six-fold Bible
- Diatesseron- a harmony of the four Gospels that was long the only life of Jesus�
- Easter Letter of Athanasius- The first list of "canonical" books that names the same twenty-seven writings found in our New Testament
- Tritheism- belief in three distinct gods
- Modalism- the unorthodox belief that God is one person who has revealed himself in 3 forms
- Docetism- the belief that Jesus Christ did not have a physical body/ rather an illusion
- Hermetic monasticism- individual
- Cenobite monasticism- communal= men and women, established hours of spiritual disciplines
- Life of Antony- caused many to imitate Antony, enrollment in citizenship in heaven/ sell everything (Popularized by Athansius)
- Rule of St. Benedict- brought modernization to the monastic life, combining spiritual and practical activities
- Augustine- Monk who brought Christianity to England
- Patrick- introduced monasticism to Celtic lands (Ireland)
- Boniface- established churches in medieval Germany
- Jerome- dreamed he was at final judgment, �You are a follower of Cicero, not of Christ�/ embraced monastic lifestyle/ responsible for translation of Bible into Latin
- Concordat of Worms- brought an end to lay investure. Bishops were elected by clergy in presence of the monarch. Ceremony would distinguish between spiritual/ temporal symbols
- Unum Sanctum- �it is altogether necessary to salvation for every human creature to be subject to the Roman pontiff�
- Sacrosancta- declared that primary authority of the church resides in councils
- Frequens- called for frequent councils at appointed times in the future