Anthropology ch5

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Anthropology ch5
2012-02-23 00:03:23
Anthropology Ch5

Anthropology Ch5
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  1. Classification
    In biology, the ordering of organisms into categories, such as orders, families, and genera, to show evolutionary relationships.
  2. Chordata
    The Phylum of the animal kingdom that includes vertebrates.
  3. Vertebrates
    Animals with segmented, bony spinal colunms, includes fishes, amphibians, reptiles (including birds) and mammals.
  4. Hemologies
    Similarities between organisms based on descent from an common ancestor.
  5. Analogies
    similarities between organisms based strictly on common functio, with no assumed common evolutionary descent.
  6. Homoplasty
    ( Homo meaning same) ( plasy meaning growth) the separate evolutionary developement of similar characteristics in different groups of organisms.
  7. Evolutionary systematics
    A traditional approach to classification (and evolutioary interpretation) in which presumed ancestors and descendnts are traced in time by analysis of homologous characters.
  8. Cladistics
    An approach to classification that attempts to make rigorous evolutionary interpretations based solely on analysis of certain types of homologous characteristics. ( Those considered to be derived characters.)
  9. Ancestral
    Referring to characters inherited by a group of organisms from remote ancestor and this not diagnostic of groups (lineages) that diverged after the character first appeared; also called primitive
  10. Clade
    A group of organisms sharing a common ancestor. The group includes the commonancestor and all descendants.
  11. Monophyletic
    Referring to an evolutionary group (clade) composed of descendants all sharing a common ancestor
  12. Polyphyletic
    Referring to an evolutionary group composed of descendants with more than one common ancestor ( and thus not true clade)
  13. Derived (modified)
    referring to characters that are modified from ancestral condition and thus diagnostic of particular evolutionary lineages.
  14. Theropods
    Small to medium sized group living dinosaurs, dated to approximately 150MYA and thought to be related to birds.
  15. Shared Derived
    Relating to specific character traits shared in common between two life forms and considered the most useful for making evolutionary interpretations
  16. Phylogenetic Tree
    A chart showing evolutionary relationships as determined by evolutionary systematics. It contains a time component and implies ancestor-descendant relationships.
  17. Cladogram
    A chart showing evolutionary relationships as determined by cladistic analysis. Its vased solely on interpretationof shared derived characters. It contains no time component and does not imply ancestor-descendant relationships.
  18. Biological Species Concept
    A depiction of species as groups of individuals capable of fertile interbreeding but reproductively isolated from other such groups.
  19. Speciation
    the process by which a new species evolves from an earlier species. Speciation is the most basic process in macroevolution
  20. Recognition species concept
    A depiction of species in which the key aspect is the ability of individuals to identify members of their own species ) In theory, this type of selective mating is a component of a species concept emphasizing mating and is therefore compatible with the biological species concept.
  21. Ecological Species concept
    the concept thata species is a group of organisms exploiting a single niche. this view emphasizes the role of natural selection in separating species from one another.
  22. Ecological Niche
    The position of a species within its physical and biological environments. A species ecological niche is defined by such components as diet, terrain, vegetation, type of predators, relationships with other species and activity patterns, and eac niche is unique to a given species. Togeather, ecological niches make up an ecosystem.
  23. phylogenetic species concept
    Splitting many populations into separate species based on an identifiable parental pattern of ancestry.
  24. Allopatric
    Living in a different areas. The allopatric pattern is important in the divergence of closely related species from each other and from their shared ancestral species because it leads to reproductive isolation.
  25. Sexual Dimorphism
    Differences in physical characteristics between males and females of the same specie. For example, humans are slightly sexually dimorphic for body size, with males being taller on average, than females of the same population.sexual dimorphism is a very pronounced in many species, such as gorillas.
  26. Intraspecific
    within species, refers to variation seen within the same species.
  27. Interspecific
    Between species, refers to variation beyond that seen within the same species to include additional aspects seen between two different species.
  28. Paleospecies
    species defined from fossil evidence, often covering a long time span..
  29. genus
    A group of closely related species.
  30. fossils
    Traces or remnants of organisms found in geological beds on earths surface.
  31. Mineralization
    The process in which parts of animals for some plants become transformed into stone- like structures. Mineralizatio usually occurs very slowly as water carrying minerals, such as silica or iron, seeps into the tiny spaces within a bone. In some cases, the original minerals within rhe bone or tooth can be completely replaced, molecule by molecule, with other minerals.
  32. Taphonomy
    the study of how bones and other materials come to be buried in the earth and preserved in fossils.
  33. Geological Time Scale
    The organization of earth history into eras, periods, and epochs, commonly used by geologists and Paleoanthropologists.
  34. Continental Drift
    The movement of continents on sliding plates of the earths surface. As a result, the positions of large landmasses have shifted drastically during earths history.
  35. Epochs
    Categories of the geological time scale; subdivisions of periods in the Cenozoic era, epochs include the Paleocene, Eocene,Oligocen,Miocene, and Pliocene (from the tertiary period) and the Pleistocene and Holocene ( From the Quaterny Period).
  36. Neocortex
    The most recently evolved portions of the cortex of the brain that are involved with higher mental functions and composed of areas that integrate incoming information from different sensory organs.
  37. Placental
    A type of subclass of mammal . During the Cenozoic, placentals became the most wide spread and numerous mammals and today are represented by upward of 20 order, including the primates.
  38. Heterodont
    Having different kinds of teeth; characteristics of mammals, whose teeth consist of incisors, canines, premolars, and molars.
  39. Endothermic
    endo meaning within or internal. Able to maintain internal body temperature by producing energy through metabolic processes within cells; characteristic of mammals, birds, and perhaps some dinasaurs.
  40. Adaptive Radiation
    The relatively rapid expansion and diversification of life forms into new ecological niches.
  41. Punctuated Equilibrium
    The concept that evolutionary change prroceeds through long periods of stasis punctuated by rapid periods of change.
  42. PG 138 More summary on main topics