CTS120.txt

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CTS120.txt
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VOCAB CTS120
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  1. electromagnetic interference (EMI)
    Electrical interference from one device to another,resulting in poor performance of the device being interfered with.
  2. electrostatic discharge (ESD)
    Movement of electrons from one body to another.
  3. radio frequency interference (RFI)
    Another form of electrical interference caused by radio-wave emitting devices, such as cell phones,wireless network cards, and microwave ovens.
  4. resistor
    Any material or device that impedes the flow of electrons. Electronic resistors measure their resistance (impedance) in ohms. See ohm(s).
  5. central processing unit
    Brain of the computer. Microprocessor that handles primary calculations for the computer.
  6. connector
    Small receptacle used to attach cables to a system. Common types of connectors include USB, PS/2, and DB-25.
  7. DB connector
    D-shaped connectors used for a variety of connections in the PC and networking world. Can be male (with prongs) or female (with holes) and have a varying number of pins or sockets.
  8. digital video interface (DVI)
    Special video connector designed for digital-to-digital connections; most commonly seen on PC video cards and LCD monitors.
  9. eSATA
    Serial ATA-based connector for external hard drives and optical drives.
  10. expansion slot
    Part of the motherboard that enables users to add optional components to a system.
  11. FireWire
    Interconnection standard to send wide-band signals over a serialized, physically thin connector system;enables connection of 63 devices at speeds up to 800 megabits per second.
  12. hard drive
    Data-recording system using solid disks of magnetic material turning at high speeds to store and retrieve programs and data in a computer.
  13. Hi-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI)
    Single multimedia connection that includes both highdefinition video and audio. Also contains copy protection features.
  14. hot-swappable
    Any hardware that may be attached to or removed from a PC without interrupting the PC's normal processing.
  15. IEEE
    (Institute of Electronic and Electrical Engineers) Leading standards-setting group in the United States.
  16. jack
    Part of a connector into which a plug is inserted. Also referred to as port.
  17. microprocessor
    Brain of a computer. Primary computer chip that determines relative speed and capabilities of the computer. Also called CPU.
  18. modem
    (modulator/demodulator) Device that converts adigital bit stream into an analog signal (modulation) and converts incoming analog signals back into digital signals (demodulation).
  19. motherboard
    Flat piece of circuit board that resides inside your computer case and has a number of connectors on it. You can use these connectors to attach a variety of devices to your system, including hard drives, CDROM drives, floppy disk drives, and sound cards.
  20. network interface card (NIC)
    Expansion card that enables a PC to physically link to a network.
  21. optical drive
    Drive used to read/write to optical discs, such as CDs or DVDs.
  22. parallel port
    Connection for the synchronous, high speed flow of data along parallel lines to a device, usually a printer.
  23. Peripherals
    An external device that connects to the system unit.
  24. plug
    Hardware connection with physical projection that connects to a port.
  25. Port (1)
    • 1 In networking, the number used to identify the requested service (such as SMTP or FTP) when
    • connecting to a TCP/IP host.
  26. Port (2)
    Physical connection: Part of a connector into which a plug is inserted. Physical ports are also referred to as jacks.
  27. power supply
    Provides the electrical power for a PC. Converts standard AC power into various voltages of DC electricity in a PC.
  28. programming
    Series of binary electronic commands sent to a CPU to get work done.
  29. random access memory (RAM)
    Memory that can be accessed at random; that is, which you can write to or read from without touching the preceding address. This term is often used to mean a computer’s main memory.
  30. serial port
    Common connector on a PC. Connects input devices (such as a mouse) or communications devices (such as a modem).
  31. system unit
    Main component of the PC, in which the CPU, RAM, CD-ROM, and hard drive reside. All other devices-the keyboard, mouse, and monitor-connect to the system unit.
  32. trackball
    Pointing device distinguished by a ball that is rolled with the fingers.
  33. universal serial bus (USB)
    General-purpose serial interconnect for keyboards, printers, joysticks, and many other devices. Enables hot-swapping devices.
  34. activation
    Process of confirming that an installed copy of a Microsoft product (most commonly Windows or a Microsoft Office application) is legitimate. Usually done at the end of software installation.
  35. Administrative Tools
    Group of Control Panel applets, including Computer Management, Event Viewer, and Reliability and Performance Monitor.
  36. Aero
    Windows Aero is the graphical user interface and the default theme in most editions of Windows Vista and Windows 7, operating systems. Its name is an acronym for Authentic, Energetic, reflective and Open. It includes window transparency and Flip 3D.
  37. applets
    Generic term for a program in the Windows Control Panel.
  38. Computer Management
    Applet in Windows' Administrative Tools that contains several useful snap-ins, such as Device Manager and Disk Management.
  39. context menu
    Small menu brought up by right-clicking on objects in Windows.
  40. Control Panel
    Collection of Windows applets, or small programs that can be used to configure various pieces of hardware and software in a system.
  41. desktop
    User's primary interface to the Windows operating system.
  42. Device Manager
    Control Panel applet in Microsoft Windows operating systems. It allows users to view and control the hardware attached to the computer.
  43. extensions
    the two, three or four letters at the end of a filename, such as .EXE, .TXT, or.JPG.
  44. file association
    Windows term for the proper program to open a particular file; for example, file association for opening .MP3 programs might be Winamp.
  45. Folders list
    Toggle button in Windows Explorer for Windows 2000 and XP that displays the file structure on the left side of the window. In Windows Vista and 7, the folders list is active by default.
  46. interface
    Means by which a user interacts with a piece of software.
  47. login screen
    First screen of the Windows interface, used to log in to the computer system.
  48. Microsoft Management Console (MMC)
    Means of managing a system, introduced by Microsoft with Windows 2000. The MMC allows an Administrator to customize management tools by picking and choosing from a list of snap-ins. Available snap-ins include Device Manager, Users and Groups, and Computer Management.
  49. Network
    Group of computers that are connected and that communicate with one another for a common purpose.
  50. notification area
    Contains icons representing background processes, the system clock and volume control located by default at the right edge of the Windows taskbar. Most users call this area the system tray.
  51. page file
    Portion of the hard drive set aside by Windows to act like RAM. Also known as virtual memory or swap file.
  52. Performance
    Performance is a fundamental metric representing system responsiveness and productivity.
  53. Registry
    Complex binary file used to store configuration data about a particular system. To edit the Registry, users can use the applets found in the Control Panel or REGEDIT.EXE or REGEDT32.EXE.
  54. Reliability and Performance Monitor
    A console that includes various tools for tuning and monitoring system performance and resources activities of CPU, disks, network, memory and other resources.
  55. root keys
    Five main categories in the Windows Registry
  56. services
    a long-running executable that performs specific functions and which is designed not to require user intervention. Windows services can be configured to start when the operating system is booted and run in the background as long as Windows is running, or they can be started manually when required.
  57. System Tools
    Menu containing tools such as System Information and Disk Defragmenter, accessed by selecting Start |Programs or All Programs | Accessories | System Tools.
  58. SystemRoot
    Tech name given to the folder in which Windows has been installed. SystemRoot by default is C:\WINNT in Windows 2000, while Windows XP and Vista's SystemRoot defaults to C:\WINDOWS.
  59. taskbar
    Contains the Start button, the system tray, the Quick Launch bar, and buttons for running applications located by default at the bottom of the desktop.
  60. transparency
    Visual representation of the computer on the monitor that makes sense to the people using the computer, through which the user can interact with the computer.
  61. User's Files
    Windows Vista's redux of the My Documents folder structure. It is divided into several folders such as Documents, Pictures, Music, and Video.
  62. Welcome screen
    Login screen for Windows XP; enables users to select their particular user account by clicking on their user picture.
  63. Windows Explorer
    Windows utility that enables you to manipulate files and folders stored on the drives in your computer.
  64. x64
    Describes 64-bit operating systems and software.
  65. x86
    Describes 32-bit operating systems and software.
  66. address bus
    Wires leading from the CPU to the memory controller chip (usually the Northbridge) that enable the CPU to address RAM. Also used by the CPU for I/O addressing. Like a post office box, each memory location has a distinct number or address; the address bus provides the means by which the microprocessor can access every location in memory.
  67. arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
    CPU logic circuits that perform basic arithmetic (add, subtract, multiply, and divide).
  68. backside bus
    Set of wires that connect the CPU to Level 2 cache. Some buses run at the full speed of the CPU, whereas others run at a fraction.
  69. binary
    The binary numeral system or base-2 number system, represents numeric values using two symbols, 0 and 1.
  70. bit
    Single binary digit. Also, any device that can be in an on or off state.
  71. byte
    Unit of eight bits; fundamental data unit of personal computers. Storing the equivalent of one character, the byte is also the basic unit of measurement for computer storage.
  72. cache
    Special area of RAM that stores the data most frequently accessed from the hard drive. Cache memory can optimize the use of your systems.
  73. central processing unit (CPU)
    Brain of the computer. Microprocessor that handles primary calculations for the computer. CPUs are known by names such as Core i5 and Phenom.
  74. clock-multiplying CPU
    CPU that takes the incoming clock signal and multiples it inside the CPU to let the internal circuitry of the CPU run faster.
  75. clock cycle
    Single charge to the clock wire of a CPU.
  76. clock speed
    Speed at which a CPU executes instructions, measured in MHz or GHz. In modern CPUs, the internal speed is a multiple of the external speed.
  77. clock wire
    Charge on the CLK wire to tell the CPU that another piece of information is waiting to be processed.
  78. dual-core
    Dual-core CPUs have two execution units on the same physical chip but share caches and RAM.
  79. dynamic RAM (DRAM)
    Memory used to store data in most personal computers. DRAM stores each bit in a "cell" composed of a transistor and a capacitor. Because the capacitor in a DRAM cell can only hold a charge for a few milliseconds, DRAM must be continually refreshed, or rewritten, to retain its data.
  80. external data bus (EDB)
    Primary data highway of all computers. Everything in your computer is tied either directly or indirectly to the external data bus. (See also frontside bus and backside bus.)
  81. floating point unit (FPU)
    Formal term for math coprocessor (also called a numeric processor) circuitry in- side a CPU. A math coprocessor calculates by using a floating point math (which allows for decimals). Before the Intel 80486, FPUs were separate chips from the CPU.
  82. frontside bus
    Wires that connect the CPU to the main system RAM. Generally running at speeds of 66-133MHz. Distinct from the expansion bus and the backside bus, though it shares wires with the former.
  83. machine language
    Binary instruction code that is understood by the CPU.
  84. instruction set
    All of the machine-language commands that a particular CPU is designed to understand.
  85. memory
    Device or medium for temporary storage of programs and data during program execution. Synonymous with storage, although it most frequently refers to the internal storage of a computer that can be directly addressed by operating instructions.
  86. memory controller chip (MCC)
    Chip that handles memory requests from the CPU. Although once a special chip, it has been integrated into the chipset on all PCs today.
  87. microprocessor
    Brain of a computer. Primary computer chip that determines relative speed and capabilities of the computer. Also called CPU.
  88. multimedia extensions (MMX)
    Specific CPU instructions that enable a CPU to handle many multimedia functions, such as digital signal processing. Introduced with the Pentium CPU, these instructions are used on all �86 CPUs.
  89. overclocking
    To run a CPU or video processor faster than its rated speed.
  90. parallel processing
    When a multicore CPU processes more than one thread.
  91. pipeline
    Processing methodology where multiple calculations take place simultaneously by being broken into a series of steps. Often used in CPUs and video processors.
  92. program
    Series of binary electronic commands sent to a CPU to get work done.
  93. random access memory (RAM)
    Memory that can be accessed at random; that is, which you can write to or read from without touching the preceding address. This term is often used to mean a computer's main memory.
  94. registers
    Storage area inside the CPU used by the onboard logic to perform calculations. CPUs have many registers to perform different functions.
  95. single-edge cartridge (SEC)
    CPU package where the CPU was contained in a cartridge that snapped into a special slot on the motherboard called Slot 1.
  96. static RAM (SRAM)
    RAM that uses a flip-flop circuit rather than the typical transistor/capacitor of DRAM to hold a bit of information. SRAM does not need to be refreshed and is faster than regular DRAM. Used primarily for cache.
  97. single-edge processor (SEP)
    The caseless daughterboard containing Intel's Celeron processor. A SEPP fits into a Slot 1 connector. (from 1999)
  98. system crystal
    Crystal that provides the speed signals for the CPU and the rest of the system.
  99. System Management Mode (SMM)
    Provided CPUs the ability to turn off high-power devices (monitors, hard drives, etc.). Originally for laptops; later versions are incorporated in all AMD and Intel CPUs.
  100. thermal compound
    Paste-like material with very high heat-transfer properties. Applied between the CPU and the cooling device, it ensures the best possible dispersal of heat from the CPU.
  101. throttling
    Power reduction/thermal control capability allowing CPUs to slow down during low activity or high heat build-up situations. Intel's version is known as SpeedStep, AMD's as PowerNow!
  102. voltage regulator module (VRM)
    Small card supplied with some CPUs to ensure that the CPU gets correct voltage. This type of card, which must be used with a motherboard specially designed to accept it, is not commonly seen today.
  103. wait state
    Occurs when the CPU has to wait for RAM to provide code. Also known as pipeline stalls.
  104. zero insertion force (ZIF) socket
    Socket for CPUs that enables insertion of a chip without the need to apply pressure. Intel promoted this socket with its overdrive upgrades. The chip drops effortlessly into the socket's holes, and a small lever locks it in.1086
  105. bank
    Total number of SIMMs or DIMMs that can be accessed simultaneously by the chipset. The "width" of
  106. Blue Screen of Death (BSoD)
    Infamous error screen that appears when Windows encounters an unrecoverable error.
  107. buffered/registered DRAM
    Usually seen in motherboards supporting more than four sticks of RAM, it is required to address interference issues caused by the additional sticks.
  108. continuity RIMM (CRIMM)
    Passive device added to populate unused banks in a system that uses Rambus RIMMs.1056
  109. disk thrashing
    Hard drive that is constantly being accessed due to lack of available system memory. When system memory runs low, a Windows system will utilize hard disk space as "virtual" memory, thus causing an unusual amount of hard drive access.
  110. double data rate SDRAM (DDR SDRAM)
    Type of DRAM that makes two processes for every clock cycle.
  111. double-sided RAM
    RAM stick with RAM chips soldered to both sides of the stick. May only be used with motherboards designed to accept double-sided RAM. Very common.
  112. dual inline memory module (DIMM)
    32or 64-bit type of DRAM packaging, similar to SIMMs, with the distinction that each side of each tab inserted into the system performs a separate function. DIMMs come in a variety of sizes, with 184and 240-pin being the most common on desktop computers.
  113. dual-channel architecture
    Using two sticks of RAM (either RDRAM or DDR) to increase throughput.
  114. dynamic random access memory (DRAM)
    Memory used to store data in most personal computers. DRAM stores each bit in a "cell" composed of a transistor and a capacitor. Because the capacitor in a DRAM cell can only hold a charge for a few milliseconds, DRAM must be continually refreshed, or rewritten, to retain its data.
  115. error correction code RAM (ECC RAM)
    RAM that uses special chips to detect and fix memory errors. Commonly used in high-end servers where data integrity is crucial.
  116. general protection fault (GPF)
    Error code usually seen when separate active programs conflict on resources or data.
  117. latency
    Amount of delay before a device may respond to a request; most commonly used in reference to RAM.
  118. module
    Small circuit board that DRAM chips are attached to. Also known as a "stick."
  119. non-maskable interrupt (NMI)
    Interrupt code sent to the processor that cannot be ignored. Typically manifested as a BSOD. page fault Minor memory-addressing error.
  120. page file
    Portion of the hard drive set aside by Windows to act like RAM. Also known as virtual memory or swap file.
  121. parity RAM
    Earliest form of error-detecting RAM; stored an extra bit (called the parity bit) to verify the data.
  122. Rambus DRAM (RDRAM)
    Patented RAM technology that uses accelerated clocks to provide very high-speed memory.
  123. RIMM
    Individual stick of Rambus RAM. The letters don't actually stand for anything; they just rhyme with SIMM and DIMM.
  124. serial presence detect (SPD)
    Information stored on a RAM chip that describes the speed, capacity, and other aspects of the RAM chip.
  125. single inline memory module (SIMM)
    DRAM packaging distinguished by having a number of small tabs that install into a special connector. Each side of each tab is the same signal. SIMMs come in two common sizes: 30-pin and 72-pin.
  126. single-sided RAM
    Has chips on only one side as opposed to double-sided RAM.
  127. serial presence detect (SPD)
    Information stored on a RAM chip that describes the speed, capacity, and other aspects of the RAM chip.
  128. single-sided RAM
    Has chips on only one side as opposed to double-sided RAM.
  129. small-outline DIMM (SO-DIMM)
    Memory used in portable PCs because of its small size.
  130. stick
    Generic name for a single physical SIMM, RIMM, or DIMM.
  131. synchronous DRAM (SDRAM)
    DRAM that is synchronous, or tied to the system clock and thus runs much faster than traditional FPM and EDO RAM. This type of RAM is used in all modern systems.

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