POSC 218

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  1. Federalism
    A constitutional arrangement whereby power is divided between national and subnational governments, each of which enforces its own laws directly on its citizens and neither of which can alter the arrangement without the consent of the other.
  2. Unitary System
    Constitutional arrangement whereby authority rests with the national government; subnational governments have only those powers given to them by the national government.
  3. Confederation
    Constitutional arrangement whereby the national government is created by and relies on subnational governments for its authority.
  4. Separation of Powers
    The dispersal of power among the separate executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government.
  5. Delegated, or Enumerated Powers
    Powers specifically mentioned in teh Constitution as belonging to the national government.
  6. Necessary and Proper Clause
    Clause in Article 1, section 8, of the U.S. Constitution granting Congress the power to enact all laws that are "necessary and proper" for carrying out those respnsibilities specifically delegated to it. Also referred to as the Implied Powers Clause.
  7. Implied Powers
    Powers not mentioned specifically in the Constitution as belonging to Congress but inferred as necessary and proper for carrying of the enumerated powers.
  8. National Supremacy Clause
    Clause in Article VI of the U.S. Constitution declaring the constitution and laws of the national government "the supreme law of the land" superior to the constitutions and laws of the states.
  9. Reserved Powers
    Powers not granted to the national government or specifically denied to the states in the constitution that are recognized by the Tenth Amendment as belonging to the state governments. This guarantee, known as the Reserved Powers Clause, embodies the principal of American federalism.
  10. Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
    A constitutional amendment proposed by Congress but never ratified by the necessary three-fourths of the states. It would have guaranteed "equality of rights under law" for women and men.
  11. Grants-In-Aid
    Payments of funds from the national government to state or local governments or from a state government to local governments for specific purposes.
  12. Categorical Grants
    Federal grants-in-aid to state or local governments for specific purposes or projects.
  13. Block Grants
    Federal grants-in-aid for general governmental functions, allowing state and local governments to exercise some flexibility in use.
  14. Dual Federalism
    Early concept of federalism in which national and stae powers were clearly distinguished and functionally separate.
  15. Cooperative Federalism
    Model of federalism in which national, state, and local governments work together exercising common policy responsibilities.
  16. Centralized Federalism
    Model of federalism in which the national government assumes primary responsibility for determining national goals in all major policy areas and directs state and local government activity through conditions attached to money grants.
  17. New Federalism
    A reference to efforts first in the Nixon administration to return some federal tax funds to the states (general revenue sharing) and later efforts in the Reagan administration to consolidate federal grant-in-aid programs into block grants.
  18. General Revenue Sharing
    Federal sharing of tax revenues with state and local governments with few strings attached; program ended in 1986.
  19. Representational Federalism
    The notion that federalism is defined by the role of the states in electing members of Congress and the president rather than any constitutional division of powers.
  20. Coercive Federalism
    The notion that federalism is defined by the role of the states in electing members of Congress and the president rather than any constitutional division of powers.
  21. Mandates
    In federal-state relations, the federal government's orders to state (or local) governments to provide particular services or perform specific services.
  22. Preemptions
    In federal-state relations, the federal government's assumption of regulatory powers in a particular field to the partial or full exclusion of state powers.
  23. Unfunded Mandates
    Mandates that impose costs on states and local governments (and private industry) without reimbursement from teh federal government.
  24. Devolution
    Passing-down of responsibilities from the national government to the states.
  25. Horizontal Federalism
    Relationships between the states.
  26. Full Faith and Credit
    The clause in the U.S. Constitution requiring states to legally recognize official acts of other states.
  27. Privileges and Immunities
    The clause in the U.S. Constitution preventing states from discriminating against citizens of other states.
  28. Extradition
    The surrender by one state of a person accused or convicted of a crime in another state.
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POSC 218
Chapter 3 Definitions
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