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What is Freud's developmental theory?
- Psychoanalytic model of personality development
- Grandfather of psychoanalysis
What is Erik Erickson's developmental theory?
Eight stages of life
What is Jean Piaget's developmental theory?
Theory of cognitive development
What is Sigmund Freud's model of personality?
- Personality development is result of conflicts we resolve in childhood. We learn to satisfy impulses while handling social pressures.
- If a conflict is not resolved during a sychosexual stage, the fixation persists
What does Freud believe is the most important?
The first five years. He argued that childhood experiences are important in personality development.
What are Freud's three components of personality?
- Id: basic instincts, impulsive behaviors to seek pleasure, reflex actions, pleasure
- Ego: rational, thinking behavior control, manipulation, problem solving
- Superego: construct of socialization, morals, conscience, learned behavior
What are Freud's five psychosexual stages, each associated with a particular erogenous zone?
- phallic (Oedipal & Electra)
What is Freud's Oral stage?
- Birth-1 year
- Mouth is associated with sexual pleasure
- parent/child bonding is essential
- weaning a child can lead to fixation if not handled correctly. Fixatioin can lead to oral activities in adulthood
What is Freud's Anal stage?
- 1-3 years
- anus is associated with pleasure
- toilet training can lead to fixation if not handled correctly. Fixation can lead to anal retentive or expulsive behaviors in adulthood
What is Freud's Phallic stage?
- 3-5 years
- Focus of pleasure shifts to the genitals
- Oedius or Electra complex can occur
- fixation can lead to excessive masculinity in males and the need for attention or domination in females.
- Sex roles are internalized through identification to the parent of the same sex
What is Freud's Latency stage?
- sexuality is repressed
- children participate in hobbies, school, and same-sex friendships
- Achievement and knowledge are in focus
What is Freud's Genital stage?
- From puberty on
- sexual feelings re-emerge and are oriented toward others
- healthy adults find pleasure in love and work.
- fixated adults have their energy tied up earlier stages
How many stages does Erikson have and what are they based on?
- 8 stages
- based on Freud's theories
- Psychosocial crisis: arises and demands resolution before the next stage can be satisfactorily negotiated
What is Erikson's stage 1?
- Trust vs. Mistrust (Hope)
- Ages birth to 1 year Infancy
- infants need to feel cared for and love
- if needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust
- trust within and without (trust of self and others)
- rejected children are more fearful, insecure, jealous, aggressive, hostile, isolated, mistrustful
What is Erikson's stage 2?
- Self-reliance vs. self-doubt (will)
- Ages 1-3 years Early Childhood
- Awareness of emerging skills develops
- Need to be taken seriously
- Toddlers learn to exercise wil & do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities
- Positive resolution includes acceptance of negative feelings-rage, anger, hatred, as well as independence
What is Erikson's stage 3?
- Ages 3-6 years Pre-school age
- Child decides what kind of person to be
- Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent
- Initiative cones with the freedom and opportunity to initiate motor play and intellectual pursuits
- Guilt comes from being made to feel bad about self-initiated activities and ideas
What is Erikson's stage 4?
- Industry vs. Inferiority
Ages 6-12 years school age
- Children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks, or they feel inferior
- Academic tasks: reading, writing, math
- Physical tasks: sports, manual dexterity
- Social Tasks: making friends, following rules, sharing ideas
- Industry is orientation toward working, doing, producing
What is Erikson's stage 5?
- Identity vs. Role-Confusion (fidelity)
- Ages 12-18 years Adolescence & teen
- Teenagers work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are
- Time of psychological and physiological revolution
- Firm self-image is formed
- Must develop strong identity-sexual, personal
- Time to select work goals, career
- Lack of identity=inability to progress successfully
What is Erikson's stage 6
- Itimacy vs. Isolation (Love)
- Ages 18-35 years early adulthood
- young adults struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love, or they feel socially isolated
- Intimacy is the ability to care deeply for another person
- The ability to share one's true feelings
- The ability to give and receive attention
- Isolation lead to self-absorption and "social death"
What is Erikson's stage 7?
- Generativity vs. Stagnation (care)
- Ages 35-55 years middle age
- The middle-aged discover a sense of contributing to the world, usually through family & work, or they may feel a lack of purpose
- Become more aware of eventual death. Question life-style, goals, choices
- Motivation to have impact outside of family
- Care represents concern for others and need to give to next generation
- Stagnation reflects preoccupation with self only
What is Erikson's stage 8?
- Integrity vs. Despair (wisdom)
- Ages 55, 65-death old age
- When reflecting on his or her life, the older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure
- Wisdom comes from a meaningful life
- integrity reflects the life well-lived
- With integrity, one can accept death
- Despair reflects a wish to do it over correctly
- With despair, one does not find peace
What is sensorimotor?
- Ages 0-2
- Teh child begins to interact with the environment
- Understandign the world through senses and motor actions (sucking, kicking, grasping, hitting, looking)
- Develop object permanence
- Stranger anxiety
What is preoperative?
- Ages 2-6 or 7
- The child begins to represent the world symbolically
- Understand intuitive
- Uses play to communicate
- Thinking is egocentric, dominated by own perception
What are concrete operations?
- Ages 7-11 or 12
- The child learns rules such as conservation
- Can do logical operations
- Understand reversibility
- Can do conservation and classification tasks
What are formal operation?
- Ages 12-adulthood
- The adolescent can transcend concrete situations and think about the future
- Can do abstract and hypothetical reasoning
- Can reason contrary to experience
- Concerned about other people's place in society