Card Set Information
What is Freud's developmental theory?
Psychoanalytic model of personality development
Grandfather of psychoanalysis
What is Erik Erickson's developmental theory?
Eight stages of life
What is Jean Piaget's developmental theory?
Theory of cognitive development
What is Sigmund Freud's model of personality?
Personality development is result of conflicts we resolve in childhood. We learn to satisfy impulses while handling social pressures.
If a conflict is not resolved during a sychosexual stage, the fixation persists
What does Freud believe is the most important?
The first five years. He argued that childhood experiences are important in personality development.
What are Freud's three components of personality?
: basic instincts, impulsive behaviors to seek pleasure, reflex actions, pleasure
: rational, thinking behavior control, manipulation, problem solving
: construct of socialization, morals, conscience, learned behavior
What are Freud's five psychosexual stages, each associated with a particular erogenous zone?
phallic (Oedipal & Electra)
What is Freud's Oral stage?
Mouth is associated with sexual pleasure
parent/child bonding is essential
weaning a child can lead to fixation if not handled correctly. Fixatioin can lead to oral activities in adulthood
What is Freud's Anal stage?
anus is associated with pleasure
toilet training can lead to fixation if not handled correctly. Fixation can lead to anal retentive or expulsive behaviors in adulthood
What is Freud's Phallic stage?
Focus of pleasure shifts to the genitals
Oedius or Electra complex can occur
fixation can lead to excessive masculinity in males and the need for attention or domination in females.
Sex roles are internalized through identification to the parent of the same sex
What is Freud's Latency stage?
sexuality is repressed
children participate in hobbies, school, and same-sex friendships
Achievement and knowledge are in focus
What is Freud's Genital stage?
From puberty on
sexual feelings re-emerge and are oriented toward others
healthy adults find pleasure in love and work.
fixated adults have their energy tied up earlier stages
How many stages does Erikson have and what are they based on?
based on Freud's theories
: arises and demands resolution before the next stage can be satisfactorily negotiated
What is Erikson's stage 1?
Trust vs. Mistrust (Hope)
Ages birth to 1 year Infancy
infants need to feel cared for and love
if needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust
trust within and without (trust of self and others)
rejected children are more fearful, insecure, jealous, aggressive, hostile, isolated, mistrustful
What is Erikson's stage 2?
Self-reliance vs. self-doubt (will)
Ages 1-3 years Early Childhood
Awareness of emerging skills develops
Need to be taken seriously
Toddlers learn to exercise wil & do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities
Positive resolution includes acceptance of negative feelings-rage, anger, hatred, as well as independence
What is Erikson's stage 3?
Ages 3-6 years Pre-school age
Child decides what kind of person to be
Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent
Initiative cones with the freedom and opportunity to initiate motor play and intellectual pursuits
Guilt comes from being made to feel bad about self-initiated activities and ideas
What is Erikson's stage 4?
Industry vs. Inferiority
Ages 6-12 years school age
Children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks, or they feel inferior
: reading, writing, math
: sports, manual dexterity
: making friends, following rules, sharing ideas
Industry is orientation toward working, doing, producing
What is Erikson's stage 5?
Identity vs. Role-Confusion (fidelity)
Ages 12-18 years Adolescence & teen
Teenagers work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are
Time of psychological and physiological revolution
Firm self-image is formed
Must develop strong identity-sexual, personal
Time to select work goals, career
Lack of identity=inability to progress successfully
What is Erikson's stage 6
Itimacy vs. Isolation (Love)
Ages 18-35 years early adulthood
young adults struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love, or they feel socially isolated
Intimacy is the ability to care deeply for another person
The ability to share one's true feelings
The ability to give and receive attention
Isolation lead to self-absorption and "social death"
What is Erikson's stage 7?
Generativity vs. Stagnation (care)
Ages 35-55 years middle age
The middle-aged discover a sense of contributing to the world, usually through family & work, or they may feel a lack of purpose
Become more aware of eventual death. Question life-style, goals, choices
Motivation to have impact outside of family
Care represents concern for others and need to give to next generation
Stagnation reflects preoccupation with self only
What is Erikson's stage 8?
Integrity vs. Despair (wisdom)
Ages 55, 65-death old age
When reflecting on his or her life, the older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure
Wisdom comes from a meaningful life
integrity reflects the life well-lived
With integrity, one can accept death
Despair reflects a wish to do it over correctly
With despair, one does not find peace
What is sensorimotor?
Teh child begins to interact with the environment
Understandign the world through senses and motor actions (sucking, kicking, grasping, hitting, looking)
Develop object permanence
What is preoperative?
Ages 2-6 or 7
The child begins to represent the world symbolically
Uses play to communicate
Thinking is egocentric, dominated by own perception
What are concrete operations?
Ages 7-11 or 12
The child learns rules such as conservation
Can do logical operations
Can do conservation and classification tasks
What are formal operation?
The adolescent can transcend concrete situations and think about the future
Can do abstract and hypothetical reasoning
Can reason contrary to experience
Concerned about other people's place in society