anatomy 25 joints

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Ghoelix
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anatomy 25 joints
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2012-02-23 06:06:42
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anatomy 25 joints
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  1. What are the two classifications of joints?
    Functional - the amount and kind of movement possible.

    Structural - Deals with the kind of material that the joint is made of.
  2. Functional joint
    -Synarhtoses
    Immovable joints.
  3. Functional joints
    -Amphiarthroses
    Slightly movable joints.
  4. Functional joints
    -Diarthroses
    Freely movable joints.
  5. Structural joints
    -Fibrous
    Fibrous joints are connected / held together by fibrous tissue, usually dense regular connective tissue ( drc ) and are usually synarthroses, immovable joints.
  6. Structural joints
    -Fibrous
    --Sutures
    Sutures means "seams". Suture joints only occur in the skull between the plates that make up the cranium. The plates are held together in a human's youth by a very small amount of fibrous tissue - drc.
  7. Structural joints
    -Fibrous joints
    --Syndesmoses
    At syndesmoses joints the bones are connected by ligaments, bands of fibrous tissue. If the ligaments of the syndesmosis joint are long then there will be some motion possible at that joint. If the ligaments are very short then very little or no motion will be allowed there.
  8. Structural joints
    -Fibrous joints
    --Gomphoses
    A "peg in a socket" joint. It's the tooth, in it's socket. Those are the only gomphoses joints in the body.
  9. Structural joints
    -Cartilaginous joints
    In cartilaginous joints the bones are held together by cartilage.
  10. Structural joints
    -Cartilaginous
    --Synchondroses
    Synchondroses joints are held together by hyaline cartilage. The joint between the first ribs and the manubrium of the sternum is a synchondrosis joint. The epiphyseal plate ( where, in youth, the epiphyses and diaphyses are joined ) is a synchondrosis joint.
  11. Structural joints
    -Cartilaginous
    --Symphyses
    Symphysis joints are held together by fibrocartilage. Fibrocartilage is strong and resilient, it can withstand crushing and pulling forces ( compression and tension ). Symphysis joints are in between vertebrae of the spine and at the pubic symphysis.
  12. Structural joints
    -Synovial joint structure
    --Articular cartilage
    Where the ends of two bones meet the ends are covered in articular cartilage which is actually hyaline cartilage.
  13. Structural joints
    -Synovial joint structure
    --Joint cavity ( synovial cavity )
    The joint cavity / synovial cavity of a synovial joint is a space between the opposing bones that is filled with synovial fluid.
  14. Structural joints
    -Synovial joint structure
    --Articular capsule
    The entire synovial joint is surrounded by the articular capsule.

    The articular capsule is made of two layers of connective tissue.

    The inner layer is the synovial membrane - it is made of loose connective tissue - it makes the synovial fluid, holds that fluid in.

    The outer layer ( called the fibrous capsule ) is made of dic tissue wich is continuous with the periosteum. It helps hold the bones of the joint together so they are not pulled apart.
  15. Structural joints
    -Synovial joint structre
    --Synovial fluid
    Synovial fluid is mostly filtered blood that consists of glycoprotein molecules that are made by the fibroblasts in the synovial membrane. They glycoproteins make the synovial fluid slippery and lubricates the joint. The synovial fluid also provides nutrients to the cartilage in the joint.
  16. Structural joints
    -Synovial joint structure
    --Reinforcing ligaments
    Reinforcing ligaments are ligaments that help hold the joint together. They can be extracapsular ( outside the synovial capsule ) or intracapsular ( in / through the synovial cavity ). The intracapsular ligaments are encased in synovial membrane to keep them separate from the capsule itself.
  17. Structural joints
    -Synovial joint structure
    --Nerves and vessels
    Um, synovial joints have lots of nerves and a rich blood supply.
  18. Structural joints
    -Synovial joint structure
    --Meniscus
    A meniscus ( crescent ) is a disc of fibrocartilage between the ends of the two bones making up the joint. It divides the joint cavity into two separate joint cavities. This is called a subdivided synovial joint.
  19. Structural joints
    -Synovial joint structure
    --Bursae
    Bursae are sort of like rolly, jelly like discs often found in synovial joints that prevent ligaments, bones, tendons, or muscles from rubbing against bone or each other when the joint is in motion. They are flattened sacks made of synovial membrane and filled with synovial fluid.
  20. Structural joints
    -Synovial joint structure
    --Tendon sheaths
    Tendon sheaths are very much like bursae ( synovial fluid wrapped in synovial membrane ) but rather than a flat disc shape between two broad surfaces, they wrap around a tendon like a hot dog bun. These are found around tendons that experience friction.
  21. What is weeping lubrication?
    When the cartilage surfaces of oposing bone ends of a synovial joint compress against each other, the cartilage squeezes out synovial fluid which lubricates the joint.
  22. What are the three kinds of movements possible at synovial joints?
    Gliding - one bone surface slides across another. Carpals ( small bones making up the wrist ).

    Angular - changes the angle between two bones. Elbow.

    Rotation - rotation about the bone's axis. Hip & shoulder, 1st and 2nd vertebrae.
  23. Flexion...
    Decreases angle between bones.
  24. Extension...
    Increases angle between bones ( opposite of felexion ).
  25. Abduction...
    Movement of a limb away from body midline.
  26. Adduction...
    Moving a limb toward the body midline, adding it back to where it started.
  27. Circumduction...
    Moving the arm or leg or finger in a circle, so its path would make a cone shape.

    This motion involves: Flexion, extension, abduction and adduction.
  28. Rotation...
    The turning motion of a bone around its own long axis.

    If the anterior surface of the leg turns towards the body midline it is medial rotation. If it turns away from the body midline, it is lateral rotation.
  29. Pronation...
    Radius rotates over ulna.
  30. Supination...
    Radius and ulna are parralel.
  31. Dorsiflexion...
    Bending foot up ( toes up ).
  32. Plantar flexion...
    Bending foot down ( toes down.
  33. Inversion...
    Pointing sole of foot towards body midline.
  34. Eversion...
    Pointing sole of foot away srom body midline.
  35. Plane joint...
    The flat surfaces of two opposing bones slide against each other along a plane. Intercarpal joints.
  36. Hinge joints...
    Cylinder shape at the end of one bone fits into the trough shape at the end of an oposing bone. Trochlea of humerus and trochlear notch of ulna.
  37. Pivot joint...
    Peg and hole ( kinda ). Radioulnar joint - the round head on the radius rotates in the radial notch on the ulna.
  38. Condyloid joints

    Yay! Candyland!
    Egg and egg cup shaped joints. Metacarpophelangeal joints - where the finger meets the hand.
  39. Saddle joint...
    Sort of saddle shaped. Kind of like two Pringles chips sitting on top of one another.
  40. Ball and socket joint...
    It's a ball and socket, simple enough.
  41. Glenoid labrum...
    Fibrocartilage around the lip of the glenoid cavity which makes the glenoid cavity just a little deeper.
  42. Coracohumeral ligament...
    Connects coracoid process and humerus.
  43. Anular ligament...
    Anular means ring-like. The anular ligament wraps around the head of the radius and holds it to the ulna
  44. Radial collateral ligament...
    Attaches radius to humerus on lateral side of elbow. Helps prevent elbow from bending side to side. Also connects radius to lateral side of hand.
  45. Ulnar collateral ligament...
    Ligament that attaches ulna to humerus on medial side of elbw. Helps prevent elbow bending side to side. Also connects ulna to medial side of the hand.
  46. Radiocarpal joint...
    Where radius meets carpals ( wrist ).
  47. Intercarpal / midcarpal joint...
    Where metacarpals meet carpals. Where hand meets carpals.
  48. Acetabular labrum...
    A lip of fibrocartilage around the lip of the acetabulum that makes the acetabulum a little deeper.
  49. Patellar retinacula...
    Tendons on either side of the patella ( medial and lateral patellar retinacula ).
  50. Oblique popliteal ligament...
    Big ligament on the backside of the knee.

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