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The 14th Amendment
- What: defines citizenship; first time the word "male" is used the Constitution
- Who: Those involved with the suffrage movement, such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, wanted the world male taken out of the amendment.
- When: it was passed in 1866 and ratified in 1868 during the Reconstruction Era
- Why: After the Civil War, the slaves were freed and their citizenship came into question
The 15th Amendment
- Who: Those involved with the suffrage movement, such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, wanted sex included in the Amendment.
- What: declares that vote cannot be denied based on race
- When: it was passed in 1868 and Ratified in 1870 during the Reconstruction Era.
- Why: The freedpeople were being denied their right to vote.
- Affect: Jim Crow laws and Black Codes still prevented many Freedpeople from voting
National Woman Suffrage Association
- Who: Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony; no male members
- What: highlights gender, ignores race; more radical; began The Revolution
- When: began in 1869
- Why: they wanted to get women the right to vote and have women be treated as equals along side men
- Who: Susan B. Anthony, Victoria Claflin Woodhull, American Woman Suffrage Association, National Women Suffrage Association
- What: Claim constitutional rights on behalf of women citizens; women=persons so women should have the right to vote; claim the right t=for women to vote is already in the constitution.
- When:1870's; Recon. era
- Where: more in the North than in the South
- Why: there is nothing in the Constitution that say women can't vote; sufrragists wanted equal voting rights for women and in general
- Who: Jane Cunningham Croly; Emma Willard; Fanny Fern; no men allowed; usually upper middle class
- What: means "aggregation"; first professional women's club
- When: March 1868
- Where: New York City
- Why: further the educational and social activities of women
Working Women's Association
- Who: Anthony; middle class perspective leaders; difficult for poor be a part of
- What: better wages; better working conditions; not being strikebreakers; no glass ceiling
- When: 1868
- Where: mostly in the North; NYC area
- Why: women were used as strikebreakers and were later fired; not paid fairly; bad working conditions
Women's Christian Temperance Movement
- Who: religious women; women who were leaders at church
- What: against alcohol; mass prayers; marches on saloon's; women had Coffee Shops
- When: women activists start in the late 19th century
- Where: all over the US; Maine=first dry state(1851); Hilsboro, OH; Fredonia, NY
- Why: women were very involved with the church; moral suasion
- Who: Joesph Smith is the founder of polygamous mormonism
- What: Men were allowed multiple wives often called sister wives
- When: 1830 when Smith was visited by Angel Moroni
- Where: They were first in New York, then Nauvoo, IL, then to Utah
- Why: After the Reform Movement that was popular along the Erie Canal, Mormonism is the result of religious revivals.
- Who: Horace F. Page(sponsor)
- What: Bill enacted by Congress to restrict immigration from Asian countries, ecspecially women who were prostitutes.
- When: March 1875
- Where: SanFrancisco area
- Why: To end cheap Chinese labor and immoral Chinese women
1887 Edmunds-Tucker Act
- Who: George F. Edmunds and John Randolph Tucker
- What: The act disincorporated both the Latter-Day Saints Church and the Perpetual Emigration Fund on the grounds that they fostered polygamy.
- When: 1887 and repealed in 1978
- Why: to ban polygamy
"Cult of True Womanhood"
- Who: Barbara Welter; prevailing in upper and middle classes
- What: Domesticity- a woman's proper sphere is at the home. Piety- Religion was valued because it controlled women's longings. Purity- Frail, virginity was prized, modesty, passionless. Submission- Men seen as superiors, no private ambitions, family anove all else.
- When: 1820-1860
- Where: New England and Northeastern U.S.
- Why: women were supposed to be calm, nurturing, loving and faithful wife, passive, and delicate.