General Ecology

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anime1003
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137185
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General Ecology
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2012-05-11 15:58:26
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Chapters 1-7
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  1. 5 soil horizons
    • Organic
    • Topsoil
    • Depositional
    • Weathered parent material
    • bedrock
  2. First soil Horizon
    • 'O'
    • organics
  3. Seconds Soil Horizon
    • 'A'
    • Topsoil- fine inorganic and organic, porus
  4. Third soil Horizon
    • 'B'
    • Depositional- stuf carried down by layers A and O, Very dense
  5. Fourth Soil Horizon
    • 'C'
    • weathered parent material
  6. Fifth Soil Horizon
    • 'R'
    • Bedrock
  7. SOil in tropical Rain forest (horizons)
    Thin O and A layers
  8. Spatial Layers of water (3)
    • Littoral
    • Limnetic
    • Benthic
  9. Littoral
    • shallow
    • contains rooted plants, invertabrates and small fish
  10. Limnetic
    • Open lake
    • Contains plankton and fish
  11. Benthic region
    • Lake floor
    • Decaying organics
  12. Thermal layers of water (3)
    • Epilimnion
    • Metalimnion
    • Hypolimnion
  13. Epilimnion
    • warm water
    • constantly mixing
    • good light
    • sufficient for plant growth
  14. Metalimnion
    • rapid temperature and light decline
    • insuficient light for plan growth
  15. Hypolimnion
    • deep water
    • cold
    • dark
    • fate of all is to decay , be eaten, or sink then decay
  16. Ice Scour Lakes (example)
    Great lakes basin
  17. Moraine Lake
    construction of rim through deposition of glacially moved soil
  18. kettle lake
    formed when stranded ice chunks becomes burried, then melts
  19. amount of oxygen dissolved in water compared to air
    5%
  20. Spacial ocaen Habitats (3)
    • intertidal
    • neritic
    • oceanic
  21. intertidal zone
    under the influence of tides
  22. neritic zone
    shore to edge of continental shelf (most productive)
  23. oceanic zone
    beyond neritic zone
  24. Vertical oceanic zones (3)
    • Epipelagic
    • Mesopelagic
    • Bathypelagic
  25. Epipelagic
    0-200m
  26. Mesopelagic
    200-1,000m
  27. Bathypelagic
    1,000-4,000m
  28. CPOM
    FPOM
    • Coarse particulate organic matter
    • Fine Particulate organic matter
  29. Hardy-Weinburg Principal
    • Concept: allel and genotype frequencies will remain constant between generations if mating is random and evolutionary forces are absent
    • Determination: observe allel and genotype frequencies and compare with predicted H-W predicted genotype frequencies
  30. 5 models needed for HW-predictions to be true
    • random mating
    • No mutations
    • No genitic Drift
    • No Gene Flow
    • No Natural Selection
  31. 4 Tenants of Natural selection
    • orgamisms beget like organisims
    • inheritable variation is present among conspecifics
    • parents produce excess offspring
    • there is differential survival and reproduction in populations linked to inheritable traits
  32. heritability
    fraction of phenotypic variability attributed to genetic variability
  33. Microclimate
    • altitude: elevation above sea level
    • Aspect: facing a given direction
    • Vegitation: plant cover
    • Color: darks heat faster
    • Burrows: subsurface locations
    • Water: high specific heat
  34. Types of heat transfer
    • Metaboloic
    • Radiation
    • Cnduction
    • convection
    • Evaporation
  35. Metabolic heat
    HM
  36. Radiation
    HR
  37. Conduction Heat
    HED
  38. Covection heat
    HEV
  39. Evaporation
    HE
  40. Endomtherms
    use mainly metabolic heat
  41. Ectotherms
    rarely use metabolic heat
  42. Plant most efficient in water use
    CAM
  43. C3 plants
    • most plants world wide
    • most efficient in cool wet climates
  44. C4 plants
    • mainly grasses
    • competitive under high temp and limited water situations
  45. CAM plants
    Usually desert plants
  46. C:N and C:P Ratio
    indicate quality of nutrient source
  47. Lowest nutritional quality food (limiting nutrient ratio)
    Plants
  48. Herbivores
    • plant eaters
    • must overcome secondary compounds, physical deterents, low nutrient quality, toxins, poisons
  49. Functional response pattern (type 1)
    Lineaar increase: occurs where handling time is minimal
  50. Functional response pattern (Type II)
    • Most common
    • decelerating increase
  51. Functional Response time (Type III)
    • S-shape response
    • occurs when prey switching is involved
  52. Two important Names in Natural Selection
    • Darwin
    • Wallace
  53. Directional Selection
    extreme phenotype is favored
  54. stabilizing selection
    both extremes are disfavored
  55. Disruptive selection
    two or more extremes are favored
  56. 1. Ecology is best defined as the scientific study of the relationships between _______________ and ________________.
    organisms, the environment
  57. An isosmotic condition is achieved, or nearly achieved, in
    echinoderms and sharks
  58. In a population of plants in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium, yellow color is given by the genotype aa and red color is given by the genotype AA or Aa. If the frequency of the A allele is 0.7, how many red plants are expected in a population of 100 plants?
    91
  59. In this countercurrent exchanger in the fin of an aquatic mammal, the arrows show the direction of blood flow in each vessel (O and P). Given this information, the blood flowing through vessel O will be warmest at what location along the vessel?
    Vessel O
    Vessel P
    _______________________________________  _____A_____B_____C______D______E_____ _______________________________________
     ____35____30____25____20_____15____
    • a. A
    • b. B c. C d. D e. E
  60. In addition to Darwin, ________________ is co-credited with discovery of the theory of evolution by natural selection.
    Wallace
  61. Grasshoppers grown in a hot environment tend to produce less body pigment. This is presumably an adaptation to modify heat gain by reducing:
    Hr.
  62. Which of the following statements about climate is false? a. It can change quickly in areas like Minnesota where air temperature can vary by 50F in
    24 hours.
    b. It is a measure of average atmospheric conditions for a certain time of year. c. It is relatively easy to predict, year to year, for a certain latitude. d. It strongly determines biome distribution. e. It is influenced by proximity to oceans and mountains.
    • It can change quickly in areas like Minnesota where air temperature can vary by 50F in
    • 24 hours.
  63. In which of the following photosynthetic pathways is carbon first fixed as a 4-carbon molecule? a. C3 b. C4
    c. CAM
    d. b and c
    e. a and b
    b and c
  64. All of the following characteristics are associated with a desert biome except: a. succulent plants. b. animals commonly using evaporation as a means to reduce body temperature. c. little or no organic soil.
    d. 30o N and S latitude. e. nocturnally active mammals
    animals commonly using evaporation as a means to reduce body temperature
  65. . Which of the following gradients commonly occurs in rivers from headwaters to outlet? a. Water temperatures decrease. b. In-river photosynthesis decreases. c. Fish composition shifts from warm-water to cool-water species.
    d. Food shifts from mainly course to mainly fine particulate organic matter.
    e. None of the above.
    . Food shifts from mainly course to mainly fine particulate organic matter
  66. If the heritability of a trait is 40-50%, it means tha
    • of the phenotypic variation in the trait in a population, 40-50% is determined by
    • genetic variation.
  67. All of the following characteristics are associated with a tropical rain forest biome except:
    a. low species diversity.
    b. wet all year. c. equatorial. d. buttressed tree trunks. e. abundant epiphytes.
    low species diversity
  68. . During summer stratification, aquatic organisms will find the coolest water in the
    hypolimnion
  69. Solar input to the northern hemisphere is greater in summer than winter during each daylight hour mainly because:
    b. sun angles are more direct (closer to perpendicular) in the summer
  70. The most productive blue ocean habitat is associated with the continental shelf in a region called the
    neritic
  71. Viscosity associated with hydrogen bonding and the boundary layer in aquatic habitats is most significant at hindering locomotion at low Reynolds numbers. This tends to be the case for organisms that are
    small and slow moving
  72. Which of the following is not a tenet of natural selection? a. Organisms beget ‘like’ organisms (inheritance). b. Parents produce excess offspring. c. There is differential survival and reproduction in offspring. d. Individuals and populations evolve.
    e. Inheritable variation is present among conspecifics.
    Individuals and populations evolve
  73. Which of the following statements about reef-building corals is false? a. They create the reef rock. b. They require temperatures of about 5o to 10o C. c. They are symbioses between cnidarians and algae.
    d. They photosynthesize and are thus limited to shallow depths. e. They generally live at latitudes between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of
    Capricorn.
    They require temperatures of about 5o to 10o C
  74. The maximum density of water is closest to _____ C and therefore ice floats, and most of the environment of a lake is liquid water and thus inhabitable by organisms in the winter.
    d. 4°
  75. 22. Which of the following conditions must be satisfied in order for the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium to predict the correct distribution of genotypes among offspring? a. No natural selection. b. No genetic drift.
    c. No immigration. d. Random mating. e. All of the above.
    All of the above.
  76. In the kargaroo rat which lives in very dry conditions, which of the following is not a feature of its biology. a. Uses subterranian burrows during the day to avoid excessive heat. b. Has extensive nasal passages to reabsorb water vapor in exhaled air.
    c. Excretes watery urine and wet fecal material.
    d. Is able to satisfy most of its water demand by oxidation of food. e. b and d.
    Excretes watery urine and wet fecal materia
  77. Which of the following statements about soil is false? a. There are 5 basic horizons. b. Soil organics are rapidly decomposed by bacteria in a Tropical Rain Forest biome. c. R refers to bedrock. d. Soil is a mixture of living and nonliving materials. e. Organic content generally increases from shallow to deep
    Organic content generally increases from shallow to deep
  78. Ecology is best defined as the scientific study of the relationships between _______________ and ________________
    organisms, the environment
  79. An isosmotic condition is achieved, or nearly achieved, in
    echinoderms and sharks
  80. In addition to Darwin, ________________ is co-credited with discovery of the theory of evolution by natural selection.
    Wallace
  81. Grasshoppers grown in a hot environment tend to produce less body pigment. This is presumably an adaptation to modify heat gain by reducing
    Hr
  82. Which of the following statements about climate is false?
    a. It can change quickly in areas like Minnesota where air temperature can vary by 50F in
    24 hours.
    b. It is a measure of average atmospheric conditions for a certain time of year. c. It is relatively easy to predict, year to year, for a certain latitude. d. It strongly determines biome distribution. e. It is influenced by proximity to oceans and mountains.
    • It can change quickly in areas like Minnesota where air temperature can vary by 50F in
    • 24 hours.
  83. In which of the following photosynthetic pathways is carbon first fixed as a 4-carbon molecule? a. C3 b. C4
    c. CAM
    d. b and c
    e. a and b
    b and c
  84. All of the following characteristics are associated with a desert biome except: a. succulent plants. b. animals commonly using evaporation as a means to reduce body temperature. c. little or no organic soil.
    d. 30o N and S latitude. e. nocturnally active mammals.
    b. animals commonly using evaporation as a means to reduce body temperature
  85. Which of the following gradients commonly occurs in rivers from headwaters to outlet? a. Water temperatures decrease. b. In-river photosynthesis decreases. c. Fish composition shifts from warm-water to cool-water species.
    d. Food shifts from mainly course to mainly fine particulate organic matter.
    e. None of the above.
    Food shifts from mainly course to mainly fine particulate organic matter
  86. If the heritability of a trait is 40-50%, it means that:
    of the phenotypic variation in the trait in a population, 40-50% is determined by genetic variation.
  87. All of the following characteristics are associated with a tropical rain forest biome except:
    a. low species diversity.
    b. wet all year. c. equatorial. d. buttressed tree trunks. e. abundant epiphytes.
    low species diversity
  88. During summer stratification, aquatic organisms will find the coolest water in the
    hypolimnion
  89. Solar input to the northern hemisphere is greater in summer than winter during each daylight hour mainly because:
    b. sun angles are more direct (closer to perpendicular) in the summer
  90. The most productive blue ocean habitat is associated with the continental shelf in a region called the:
    neritic
  91. Viscosity associated with hydrogen bonding and the boundary layer in aquatic habitats is most significant at hindering locomotion at low Reynolds numbers. This tends to be the case for organisms that are:
    small and slow moving.
  92. Which of the following is not a tenet of natural selection? a. Organisms beget ‘like’ organisms (inheritance). b. Parents produce excess offspring. c. There is differential survival and reproduction in offspring. d. Individuals and populations evolve.
    e. Inheritable variation is present among conspecifics.
    Individuals and populations evolve
  93. Which of the following statements about reef-building corals is false? a. They create the reef rock. b. They require temperatures of about 5o to 10o C. c. They are symbioses between cnidarians and algae.
    d. They photosynthesize and are thus limited to shallow depths. e. They generally live at latitudes between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of
    Capricorn.
    They require temperatures of about 5o to 10o C
  94. The maximum density of water is closest to _____ C and therefore ice floats, and most of the environment of a lake is liquid water and thus inhabitable by organisms in the winter.
  95. Which of the following conditions must be satisfied in order for the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium to predict the correct distribution of genotypes among offspring? a. No natural selection. b. No genetic drift.
    c. No immigration. d. Random mating. e. All of the above.
    All of the above.
  96. In the kargaroo rat which lives in very dry conditions, which of the following is not a feature of its biology. a. Uses subterranian burrows during the day to avoid excessive heat. b. Has extensive nasal passages to reabsorb water vapor in exhaled air.
    c. Excretes watery urine and wet fecal material.
    d. Is able to satisfy most of its water demand by oxidation of food. e. b and d.
    c. Excretes watery urine and wet fecal material
  97. Which of the following statements about soil is false? a. There are 5 basic horizons. b. Soil organics are rapidly decomposed by bacteria in a Tropical Rain Forest biome. c. R refers to bedrock. d. Soil is a mixture of living and nonliving materials. e. Organic content generally increases from shallow to deep.
    Organic content generally increases from shallow to deep.
  98. In a transplant experiment where you move several organisms of the same species to an area previously unoccupied, you find that the organisms survive. Which of the following conclusions is NOT reasonable?a. The organisms had previously chosen not to inhabit the area.
    b. The organisms had been prevented by some sort of barrier from dispersing to the area. c. Not enough time had elapsed to permit the species to disperse to the area. d. Physical and chemical conditions in the area had prevented the organism from surviving. e. b and c
    Physical and chemical conditions in the area had prevented the organism from surviving.
  99. Which of the following is an example of aggressive mimicry?
    a. Sabre-toothed blenny mimics coloration and behavior of a cleaner wrasse.
    b. Tree hopper resembles thorns on the stem of a rosebush. c. Viceroy butterfly mimics the coloration pattern of the Monarch butterfly. d. Looper inchworm resembles a branch in coloration and rigidity. e. Butterfly fish has an eyespot on the tail that mimics its true eye
    Sabre-toothed blenny mimics coloration and behavior of a cleaner wrasse
  100. The annual growth rate of the human population on earth peaked in the _______, and has been decreasing ever since.
    1960s
  101. In the logistic growth model, the expression ((K-N)/K) represents
    the effect of intraspecific competition on population growth.
  102. In the equation dNpred/dt = c*p*Nprey*Npred – d*Npred, the term c represents the
    conversion rate of prey into predator
  103. Lynx and hare densities in the boreal forest cycle on roughly a decadal time scale. What factor is most responsible for the peak density reached by hare during each cycle?
    An interaction in the combined effect of food density and mammalian predator density
  104. Which of the following statements is FALSE? a. In crypsis mimicry, either an animal changes its color to fit the background or the animal searches for a background which matches its coloration. b. In crypsis mimicry, the adaptation of crypsis has to be a perfect match to the surroundings to afford any protection at all. c. Mimicry is reasonably defined as a situation where an organism pretends to be something else to deceive members of another species or its own species. d. Batesian mimicry is named after the English naturalist H.W. Bates who described the phenomenon. e. The bumblebee moth from North America is a good example of Batesian mimicry.
    In crypsis mimicry, the adaptation of crypsis has to be a perfect match to the surroundings to afford any protection at all.
  105. _____________ competitive ability, _______________ offspring, and ________________ development are generally associated with an r-selected life-history strategy.
    Not strongly favored, many small, rapid
  106. Resources:
    are consumed by an organism
  107. In the Lotka-Volterra competition equation, dN2/dt = r2N2
    the per capita competitive effect of species 1 on species 2.
  108. The winning species in a competitive interaction:
    can survive and reproduce on less of the limiting resource per individual.
  109. Within the first two years of the initial infection of Myxoma into the rabbit population in Australia, the death toll among rabbits declined, and the number of healthy rabbits began to rise because: a. natural selection lead to increased numbers of resistant rabbits. b. the virulence grade of Myxoma quickly declined from grade I to grades II, III and IV.
    c. the mosquito vector declined in abundance.
    d. a and b
    e. b and c
    a and b
  110. Which of the following regarding K for humans on earth is FALSE? a. Estimates during the past couple of centuries have ranged from 1 billion to 1000 billion. b. There is probably no limit to K. c. It will likely depend in part on opportunities set by technology. d. It will likely depend in part on choices set by cultures and values. e. It will likely depend in part on constraints set by natural resources.
    There is probably no limit to K.
  111. Examples of mimicry are known in which a species has evolved to resemble another species’: a. sound. b. physical appearance. c. behavior.
    d. scent.
    e. all of the above
    all of the above
  112. Which of the following associations is CORRECT? a. Catch per unit effort fish data : Estimate of absolute density. b. Pelt record counts as with lynx and hare in Canada a century ago : Estimate of absolute density. c. Hawk Ridge bird count data : Estimate of relative density. d. Quadrat sampling data : Estimate of relative density. e. None of the above is correct.
    . Hawk Ridge bird count data : Estimate of relative density.
  113. In regions of the world where the malaria parasite (Plasmodium) and its associated mosquito vector are common, the regional incidence of sickle-cell anemia:
    is high because the mutant gene in a single dose provides some resistance to malaria, so the gene is maintained in the population.
  114. According to the video that you watched entitled “Race to Save the Planet”, early attempts at sedentary lifestyles:a. were always successful. b. lead to increased birth rates per female.
    c. were prompted by climate changes that reduced precipitation.
    d. b and c
    e. a, b and c
    b and c
  115. In the basic model of population growth (Nfuture = Npresent + B – D + I – E), the terms B
    and E represen
    Birth and Emigration.
  116. The four main factors responsible for a population’s distribution include all of the following EXCEPT: a. physical and chemical factors. b. behavior.
    c. other species.
    d. birth rates.
    e. dispersal.
    birth rates.
  117. The capture-recapture method of density estimation is well suited for:
    mobile, secretive organisms like bats.
  118. Parasitism is best defined as an interaction between species where:
    one species depends metabolically on another species causing harm to it but not necessarily death.
  119. The carrying capacity of a population is: a. the same from one habitat to the next. b. set by environmental limits. c. the maximum sustainable N of a population. d. a and b
    e. b and c
    b and c

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