Card Set Information

2012-03-06 09:00:19

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  1. What microorganisms are eukaryotes?
    fungi, protozoa, helminths
  2. What needs an organisms to live in at the expense of?
  3. What is a host?
    the organism which a parasite benefits from
  4. What are biting insects that transmits pathogens or parasites to humans?
    biological vector
  5. What are some biological vectors and what do they commonly transmit?
    • ticks - lyme disease
    • misquitos - malaria
  6. What are yeasts and molds?
  7. Which fungi is unicellular and multicellular?
    • yeasts - unicellular
    • molds - multicellular
  8. How do fungus reproduce?
    • yeasts - budding
    • molds - spores
  9. Describe budding
    yeast cell pushes copy of DNA outside the cell, considered a bud
  10. Describe mold spore reproduction
    • mold cell branches
    • spores produced and airbourne
  11. What is an opportunistic fungal disease?
  12. What are 3 categories of mycoses?
    • dermatomycoses/cutaneous mycoses
    • subcutaneous
    • systemic
  13. What is a cutaneous infection and how is it accumulated?
    • is a skin, hair, nails fungal infection
    • accumulated from prolonged exposure to infected damp surfaces and direct contact
  14. How do you treat ringworm?
    with antifungal medicine
  15. What fungal infections are found under the skin?
    subcutaneous mycoses
  16. How do you receive a subcutaneous mycoses?
    puncture wound receives fungal spores
  17. What is treated with oral antifungal medication?
    subcutaneous mycoses
  18. What is the most rare fungal infection and occurs throughout the body (via bloodstream)?
    systemic mycoses
  19. How do you receive a systemic mycoses?
    • inhalation of many fungal spores
    • or low immunity to resist few fungal spores
  20. What happens in a systemic fungal infection?
    • respiratory tract infection
    • fungal spores get into bloodstream
    • fungal spores travel to major organs
  21. Why is it hard to treat systemic mycoses?
    Because the antifungal IV also kills many human cells as it fights fungal cells
  22. Who are at a higher risk of receiving a systemic mycoses?
    • HIV/AIDS patients
    • cancer patients
    • antirejection medication patients
  23. What are the 5 clinically important fungi?
    • penicillium
    • aspergillus
    • candida albicans
    • histoplasma capulatum
    • pneumocytis jirovecii
  24. Whay is penicillium clinically important?
    penicillium makes the antibitoc Penicilin
  25. What two things does inhalation of aspergillus fungus cause?
    • "farmers lung"
    • aspergilosis
  26. What is the allergy that aspergillus causes and how can the symptoms be prevented?
    • Farmers lung
    • avoid dead grass, and wear a mask
  27. What is the fungal infection that aspergillus causes?
  28. How is aspergilosis tested for and treated?
    • tested by lung tissue biopsy
    • treated with oral antifungal medication
  29. What fungus is normal flora, but excessive growth can cause fungal infection?
    candida albicans
  30. What does excessive growth of candida in the vagina cause?
    candida vaginitis "yeast infection"
  31. What would lead to exscessive growth of candida fungus in the vagina?
  32. What is excessive growth of candida in the mouth?
  33. Who is affected by thrush and why?
    • elderly - unclean dentures
    • newborns - gather fungus when being born, nursing milk feeds fungus in mouth
  34. What is an overgrowth of candida on the skin called?
    candidiasis - diaper rash
  35. What does candida need to grow?
    • antibitoics - to remove competitors
    • sugar
    • moisture
  36. What is found in chicken and bat feces?
    histoplasma capsulatum
  37. What is the strongest pathogenic fungus?
    histoplasma capsulatum
  38. What does a histoplasmic infection (histoplasmosis) look like?
    • begins as respiratory infection
    • becomes systemic via blood stream
  39. How is histpolasmosis treated?
    systemic infections treated with IV antifungal
  40. What is the weakest pathogenic fungus?
    pneumocystis jirovecii
  41. What fungus causes a type of pneumonia?
    pneumocystis jirovecii
  42. Although pneucystosis jirovecii is a veyr weak fungus pathogen, who might it affect?
    low immune response patients (HIV/AIDS, elderly, alcoholics)
  43. What are the 6 clinically important protozoa?
    • 1. Acanthamoeba species
    • 2. Entamoeba histolytica
    • 3. Giardia lamblia /Giardia intestinalis
    • 4. Toxoplasma gondii
    • 5. Trichomonas vaginalis
    • 6. Plasmodium species
  44. What does an acantheameoba infection cause?
  45. What does an Entamoeba histolytica infection cause?
    Amoebic Dysentery
  46. What does a Giardia lamblia/Giardia intestinalis infection cause?
  47. What does a Toxoplasma gondii infection cause?
  48. What does a Trichomonas vaginalis infection cause?
  49. What does a Plasmodium species infection cause?
  50. What are the symptoms for Keratitis?
    eye infection, inflammation of the cornea
  51. How does a person often get infected with Keratitis (Acanthamoeba)?
    tends to occur in long wear contacts exposed to ameobas in the water
  52. What protozoa infects only humans?
    Entamoeba histolytica
  53. How is Entamoeba histolytica transmitted?
    fecal-to-oral route
  54. What protozoan infection shows symptoms of bloody diarrhea?
    Amoebic Dysentery (Entamoeba histolytica)
  55. What protozoa damagesthe tissues in the intestines by shredding them?
    Entamoeba histolytica
  56. How is Giardia lamblia transmitted?
    fecal to oral route
  57. What protozoan infection shows symptoms of fatty diarrhea, weight loss, fatigue, and cramps?
    Giardiasis (Giardia lamblia)
  58. What protozoan coats the intestines and blacks fat absorption?
    Giardia lamblia
  59. What are 2 ways a person can become infected with Toxoplasma gondii protozoa?
    • undercooked meat
    • cat feces
  60. Why does Toxoplasma gondii infect people by cat feces?
    the protozoa matures insides cats
  61. Why would a person not know they had been infected with Toxoplasma gondii and had Toxoplasmosis?
    Toxoplasmosis shows the same mild symptoms as any stomach infection
  62. How do you treat Toxoplasmosis?
    • usually the immune system turns Toxoplasma gondii into a dormant form
    • active protozoa treated with antiprotozoan in people whos immune system depletes
  63. What happens to the fetus of preganant women who are exposed, for the first time, to Toxoplasma gondii?
    fetus will die due to brain damage caused by the protozoa eating on brain tissue
  64. What protozoa is a STD?
    Trichomonas vaginalis (Trichomoniasis)
  65. What protozoa is transmitted by biological vectors?
    Plasmodium species that causes Malaria
  66. What 2 ways can Malaria be transmitted?
    • from one person who is infected to a biological vector to an uninfected person
    • blood tranfusions & transplants
  67. Why are biological vectors needed to transmit malaria?
    plasmodiums reproduce enough in the vector to cause disease
  68. Where do plasmodiums infect people most?
    • liver (jaundice)
    • red blood cells (anemia)
  69. What does a person with yellowed skin (due to failed liver), anemia, and spikes in fever possibly have?
  70. What pathogens can lie dormant until the immune system drops?
    • plasmodium (Malaria)
    • Toxoplasma gondii (Toxoplasmosis)
    • Trichinella spiralis (Trichinosis)
  71. What kind of infection is a tapeworm?
    intestinal infection
  72. What specie do tapeworms infect?
    animals and people
  73. What do tapeworms use to attach to the intestines?
    hooks and suckers
  74. What are the flat sections of a tapeworm?
    egg sacs
  75. How are tapeworms transmitted?
    • fecal to oral route
    • undercooked meat
  76. What signs and symptoms would a person with a tapeworm have?
    • weight loss
    • constipation
    • abdominal cramps
  77. What kind of meat is Trichinella spiralis often found in?
    pork (pig)
  78. What kind of helminth becomes cystic in muscle tissue as a dormant form?
    Trichinella spiralis
  79. What signs or symptoms would a person with Trichinosis exhibit?
    • constipation
    • abdominal pain
    • muscle inflammation
    • swelling of ocular muscles
    • swelling of diaphragm - painful breathing