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What microorganisms are eukaryotes?
fungi, protozoa, helminths
What needs an organisms to live in at the expense of?
What is a host?
the organism which a parasite benefits from
What are biting insects that transmits pathogens or parasites to humans?
What are some biological vectors and what do they commonly transmit?
- ticks - lyme disease
- misquitos - malaria
What are yeasts and molds?
Which fungi is unicellular and multicellular?
- yeasts - unicellular
- molds - multicellular
How do fungus reproduce?
- yeasts - budding
- molds - spores
yeast cell pushes copy of DNA outside the cell, considered a bud
Describe mold spore reproduction
- mold cell branches
- spores produced and airbourne
What is an opportunistic fungal disease?
What are 3 categories of mycoses?
- dermatomycoses/cutaneous mycoses
What is a cutaneous infection and how is it accumulated?
- is a skin, hair, nails fungal infection
- accumulated from prolonged exposure to infected damp surfaces and direct contact
How do you treat ringworm?
with antifungal medicine
What fungal infections are found under the skin?
How do you receive a subcutaneous mycoses?
puncture wound receives fungal spores
What is treated with oral antifungal medication?
What is the most rare fungal infection and occurs throughout the body (via bloodstream)?
How do you receive a systemic mycoses?
- inhalation of many fungal spores
- or low immunity to resist few fungal spores
What happens in a systemic fungal infection?
- respiratory tract infection
- fungal spores get into bloodstream
- fungal spores travel to major organs
Why is it hard to treat systemic mycoses?
Because the antifungal IV also kills many human cells as it fights fungal cells
Who are at a higher risk of receiving a systemic mycoses?
- HIV/AIDS patients
- cancer patients
- antirejection medication patients
What are the 5 clinically important fungi?
- candida albicans
- histoplasma capulatum
- pneumocytis jirovecii
Whay is penicillium clinically important?
penicillium makes the antibitoc Penicilin
What two things does inhalation of aspergillus fungus cause?
- "farmers lung"
What is the allergy that aspergillus causes and how can the symptoms be prevented?
- Farmers lung
- avoid dead grass, and wear a mask
What is the fungal infection that aspergillus causes?
How is aspergilosis tested for and treated?
- tested by lung tissue biopsy
- treated with oral antifungal medication
What fungus is normal flora, but excessive growth can cause fungal infection?
What does excessive growth of candida in the vagina cause?
candida vaginitis "yeast infection"
What would lead to exscessive growth of candida fungus in the vagina?
What is excessive growth of candida in the mouth?
Who is affected by thrush and why?
- elderly - unclean dentures
- newborns - gather fungus when being born, nursing milk feeds fungus in mouth
What is an overgrowth of candida on the skin called?
candidiasis - diaper rash
What does candida need to grow?
- antibitoics - to remove competitors
What is found in chicken and bat feces?
What is the strongest pathogenic fungus?
What does a histoplasmic infection (histoplasmosis) look like?
- begins as respiratory infection
- becomes systemic via blood stream
How is histpolasmosis treated?
systemic infections treated with IV antifungal
What is the weakest pathogenic fungus?
What fungus causes a type of pneumonia?
Although pneucystosis jirovecii is a veyr weak fungus pathogen, who might it affect?
low immune response patients (HIV/AIDS, elderly, alcoholics)
What are the 6 clinically important protozoa?
- 1. Acanthamoeba species
- 2. Entamoeba histolytica
- 3. Giardia lamblia /Giardia intestinalis
- 4. Toxoplasma gondii
- 5. Trichomonas vaginalis
- 6. Plasmodium species
What does an acantheameoba infection cause?
What does an Entamoeba histolytica infection cause?
What does a Giardia lamblia/Giardia intestinalis infection cause?
What does a Toxoplasma gondii infection cause?
What does a Trichomonas vaginalis infection cause?
What does a Plasmodium species infection cause?
What are the symptoms for Keratitis?
eye infection, inflammation of the cornea
How does a person often get infected with Keratitis (Acanthamoeba)?
tends to occur in long wear contacts exposed to ameobas in the water
What protozoa infects only humans?
How is Entamoeba histolytica transmitted?
What protozoan infection shows symptoms of bloody diarrhea?
Amoebic Dysentery (Entamoeba histolytica)
What protozoa damagesthe tissues in the intestines by shredding them?
How is Giardia lamblia transmitted?
fecal to oral route
What protozoan infection shows symptoms of fatty diarrhea, weight loss, fatigue, and cramps?
Giardiasis (Giardia lamblia)
What protozoan coats the intestines and blacks fat absorption?
What are 2 ways a person can become infected with Toxoplasma gondii protozoa?
- undercooked meat
- cat feces
Why does Toxoplasma gondii infect people by cat feces?
the protozoa matures insides cats
Why would a person not know they had been infected with Toxoplasma gondii and had Toxoplasmosis?
Toxoplasmosis shows the same mild symptoms as any stomach infection
How do you treat Toxoplasmosis?
- usually the immune system turns Toxoplasma gondii into a dormant form
- active protozoa treated with antiprotozoan in people whos immune system depletes
What happens to the fetus of preganant women who are exposed, for the first time, to Toxoplasma gondii?
fetus will die due to brain damage caused by the protozoa eating on brain tissue
What protozoa is a STD?
Trichomonas vaginalis (Trichomoniasis)
What protozoa is transmitted by biological vectors?
Plasmodium species that causes Malaria
What 2 ways can Malaria be transmitted?
- from one person who is infected to a biological vector to an uninfected person
- blood tranfusions & transplants
Why are biological vectors needed to transmit malaria?
plasmodiums reproduce enough in the vector to cause disease
Where do plasmodiums infect people most?
- liver (jaundice)
- red blood cells (anemia)
What does a person with yellowed skin (due to failed liver), anemia, and spikes in fever possibly have?
What pathogens can lie dormant until the immune system drops?
- plasmodium (Malaria)
- Toxoplasma gondii (Toxoplasmosis)
- Trichinella spiralis (Trichinosis)
What kind of infection is a tapeworm?
What specie do tapeworms infect?
animals and people
What do tapeworms use to attach to the intestines?
hooks and suckers
What are the flat sections of a tapeworm?
How are tapeworms transmitted?
- fecal to oral route
- undercooked meat
What signs and symptoms would a person with a tapeworm have?
- weight loss
- abdominal cramps
What kind of meat is Trichinella spiralis often found in?
What kind of helminth becomes cystic in muscle tissue as a dormant form?
What signs or symptoms would a person with Trichinosis exhibit?
- abdominal pain
- muscle inflammation
- swelling of ocular muscles
- swelling of diaphragm - painful breathing
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