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- Consists of:
- .....Blood vessels:
Functions of the Cardiovascular System
1. Heart & Blood Vessels
: Work together to pump blood to all body tissues
- 2. Blood:
- .....a. Fluid tissue that transports oxygen & nutrients to other body tissues
- .....b. Returns SOME waste products from tissues to kidneys
- .....c. Carries carbon dioxide back to lungs
- .....d. Blood cells play important roles in immune system
- 1. Hollow, muscular organ
- 2. Located between lungs
- 3. Pump that maintains blood flow throughout body
Apex of heart
Pointed lower end of heart
1. Double-walled membranous sac
that encloses heart
- 2. There are three parts:
- ......a. Parietal pericardium:
- ..........(1) Tough, outer layer
- ..........(2) Forms fibrous sac
- ..........(3) Surrounds & protects heart
- .....b. Visceral pericardium:
- ..........(1) Inner layer of pericardium
- ..........(2) Outer layer of heart - called epicardium
- .....c. Pericardial fluid:
- ..........(1) Between Parietal & Visceral layers
- ..........(2) Acts as lubricant to prevent friction when heart beats
Walls of heart
- Walls of the heart are made up of three layers:
- .....1. Epicardium:
- ..........a. External or outer layer of heart
- ..........b. Inner layer of pericardium
- .....2. Myocardium (Myocardial muscle):
- .........a. Middle & thickest layer
- .........b. Consists of specialized cardiac muscle
- .........c. Constant contraction & relaxation creates pumping movement that maintains blood flow throughtout body
- .....3. Endocardium:
- ..........a. Inner layer of heart
- ..........b. Consists of epithelial tissue
- ..........c. Comes into direct contact with blood being pumping through the heart
Blood Supply to Myocardium
- 1. Because of constant pumping, must have:
- .....a. Continuous supply of oxygen and nutrients (artery)
- .....b. Prompt waste removal (veins)
2. Coronary arteries
provide oxygen-rich blood to myocardium
3. If blood supply
, the affected area of the myocardium dies.
Chambers of the Heart
- The heart has four chambers:
- .....1. Left & Right Atria (singular atrium)
- ...........a. Upper, receiving chambers of heart
- ...........b. All blood enters here
- ...........c. Atria separated by interatrial septum
- .....2. Left & Right Ventricles
- ..........a. Lower chambers of the heart
- ..........b. Pumping chambers
- ..........c. Walls are thicker than atria
- ..........d. All blood vessels leaving heart emerge from ventricle..........e. Ventricles separated by interventricular septum
Normal hollow chamber of the heart or brain
Wall that separates two chambers, as of heart or nose
The valves of the heart
- 1. Four valves control flow of blood through the heart:
- ......a. Tricuspid
- ......b. Pulmonary semilunar
- ......c. Mitral
- ......d. Aortic semilunar
2. If any valve does not function properly, the blood cannot be pumped effectively throughout the body.
1. Controls opening between right atrium & right ventricle
2. Means having three cusps or points
Pulmonary semilunar valve
1. Located between right ventricle & pulmonary artery
2. Shaped like a half-moon
1. Located between left atrium & left ventricle
2. Also known as the bicuspid valve.
3. Mitral means shaped like bishop's miter. Bicuspid means having two cusps or points.
1. Located between the left ventricle & aorta.
2. Aortic means pertaining to the aorta.
Means oxygen-poor, not yet containing adequate supply of oxygen
1. Includes the flow of blood to all parts of the body EXCEPT the lungs.
2. Oxygenated blood flows out of the left ventricle & into arterial circulation
3. Veins carry deoxygenated blood into right artium.
4. Blood flows from right atrium into pulmonary circulation before being pumped out of heart into arteries again.
1. Flow of blood between heart and lungs
2. In lungs, carbon dioxide is exchanged for oxygen from inhaled air
3. Deoxygenated blood carried from heart to lungs by pulmonary arteries
- 4. Oxygenated blood carried from lungs to heart by pulmonary veins
1. Carry deoxygenated blood out of right ventricle and into the lungs
2. ONLY PLACE IN BODY where deoxygenated blood is carried by arteries!
3. In lungs, carbon dioxide is exchanged for oxygen.
1. Carry oxygenated blood from lungs into left atrium of heart.
2. ONLY PLACE IN BODY where oxygenated blood is carried by veins!
1. To pump blood effectively,
the contraction & relaxation (beating) of the heart must occur in the exactly correct sequence
2. The rate & regularity of the heart beat is determined by conduction system
. electrical implulses from nerves that stimulate the myocardium of the heart chambers
- 3. The conduction system is electrical impulses controlled by the:
- .....a. Sinoatrial (SA) node
- .....b. Atrioventicular (AV) node
- .....c. Bundle of His
Sinoatrial (SA) node
1. Located in posterior wall of the right atrium near entrance of superior vena cava.
2. SA node establishes basic rhythm and rate of heartbeat
3. Known as natural pacemaker of heart
4. Electrical impulses from SA node start each wave of muscle contraction in the heart.
5. Impulse in right atrium spreads over muscles of both atria causing them to contract simultaneously, forcing blood into the ventricles.
1. AV node located on floor of right atrium near interatrial septum.
2. AV node receives impulses from SA node.
3. AV node transmits electrical impulses to bundle of HIS.
Bundle of HIS
1. Group of fibers located within the interventricular septum.
2. Fibers carry electrical impulse to ensure sequence of heart contractions.
3. Impulse travels onward to right & left ventricles and Purkinje fibers.
1. Specialized conductive fibers within walls of ventricles.
2. Fibers relay electrical impulses to cells of the ventricles.
3. This stimulation causes ventricles to contract.
4. Contraction forces blood out of heart, into aorta & pulmonary arteries.
1. Activities of electrical conduction system of heart can be visualized as wave movements on monitor or EKG.
2. P wave due to stimulation (contraction) of atria.
3. QRS complex shows stimulation (contraction) of the ventricles. The atria relax as the ventricles contract.
4. T wave is recovery (relaxation) of the ventricles.
- Three major type of blood vessels:
- .....1. Arteries
- .....2. Veins
- .....3. Capillaries
1. Large blood vessels carry blood away from heart to all regions of the body.
2. Walls composed of three layers so are muscular & elastic to expand and contract with pumping of heart.
3. Aterial blood is bright red because is oxygen-rich.
Means pertaining to the inner portion of an artery or within an artery.
1. Largest blood vessel in body
2. Main trunk of the arterial system
3. Begins from left ventricle of heart
1. Major arteries that carry blood upward to head
2. Common carotids
located on each side of neck
- 3. Common carotids divide into:
- .....a. Internal carotid - brings oxygen-rich blood to brain
- .....b. External carotid - brings blood to the face
- 4. Disruption of flow to or through carotid can result in stroke or other brain damage.
1. Smaller, thinner branches of arteries.
2. Carry blood to the capillaries.
1. Form low-pressure collecting system
to return oxygen-poor blood to the heart
2. Walls are thinner & less elastic than arteries
- 3. Have valves that:
- ......a. Enable blood to flow only toward the heart
- ......b. Prevent it from flowing away from heart
4. Superficial veins
: located near body surface
- 5. Deep veins located:
- ......a. Within tissues
- ......b. Away from body surface
Smallest veins that join to form larger veins.
(singular vena cava)
- 1. Two largest veins in body:.....a. Superior vena cava - transports blood from upper portion of body
- .....b. Inferior vena cava - transports blood from lower portion of body
2. Return blood into heart
1. Only ONE epithelial cell in thickness
2. Smallest vessels in body
3. Form networks of expanded vascular beds
4. Have important role of delivering oxygen and nutrients to cells of the tissues
5. Arterioles deliver blood to capillaries.
6. Blood flow slows as enters one end of vascular bed
- 7. Capillaries further slow blood flow to allow plasma to flow into tissues for exchange of:
- .....a. Oxygen
- .....b. Nutrients
- .....c. Waste materials within surrounding cells
8. 90% of fluid
(now oxygen-poor) leaves opposite end of capillary bed through the venules
& continues to flow as venous blood
and increases in speed as it begins return to heart.
9. Remaining 10% of fluid left behind in tissues & becomes lymph.
Means pertaining to blood vessels.
Rhythmic pressure against walls of an artery caused by contraction of the heart.
Measurement of the amount of systolic and diastolic pressure exerted against the wall of the arteries.
1. Occurs when the ventricles contract
2. Highest pressure against the walls of an artery.
3. Systolic means pertaining to systole, the contraction phase of the heart.
1. Ocurs when the ventricles are relaxed
2. Lowest pressure against walls of an artery.
3. Diastolic means pertaining to diastole, the relaxation phase of the heartbeat.
1. Fluid tissue in the body.
- 2. Composed of:
- .....a. 55% liquid plasma
- .....b. 45% formed elements
- 1. Straw-colored fluid that contains:
- .....a. Nutrients
- .....b. Hormones
- .....c. Waste products
- 2. Plasma is composed of:
- .....a. 91% water
- .....b. 9% consisting of mainly proteins, including the clotting proteins.
Fibrinogen & Prothrombin
1. Clotting proteins found in plasma.
2. Have important role in clot formation to control bleeding
Plasma fluid after the blood cells & clotting proteins have been removed.
Formed Elements of blood
- 1. The formed elements of blood include:
- .....a. Erythrocytes
- .....b. Leukocytes
- .....c. Thrombocytes
1. Also known as red blood cells (RBC)
2. Mature red blood cells produced by red bone marrow
3. Primary role is to transport oxygen to the tissues.
4. Oxygen is carried by hemoglobin, iron-containing pigment in erythrocytes.
1. Iron-containing pigment in erythrocytes
2. Carries oxygen to the tissues.
1. Also known as white blood cells (WBC)
- 2. Involved in defending the body against:
- ......a. Infective organisms
- ......b. Foreign substances
- 3. Major groups are:
- ......a. Neutrophils
- ......b. Basophils
- ......c. Eosinophils
- ......d. Lymphocytes
- ......e. Monocytes
1. Formed in red bone marrow
2. Most common type of white blood cell
- 3. Through phagocytosis, neutrophils play major role in immune system's defence against pathogens including:
- .....a. Bacteria
- .....b. Viruses
- .....c. Fungi
Process of destroying pathogens by surrounding and swallowing them.
1. Formed in red bone marrow.
2. LEAST common type of WBC
3. Responsible for symptoms of allergies.
1. Formed in red bone marrow
2. Migrate to tisssues throughout the body.
3. Destroy parasitic organisms
4. Play major role in allergic reactions.
- 1, Formed in:
- .....a. Red bone marrow
- .....b. Lymph nodes
- .....c. Spleen
2. Identify foreign substances and germs (bacteria or viruses) in body and produce antibodies that specifically target them.
- 1. Formed in:
- .....a. Red bone marrow
- .....b. Lymph nodes
- .....c. Spleen
2. Through phagocytosis, monocytes provide immunological defenses against many infectious organisms.
1. Also known as platelets
2. Smallest formed elements of the blood
3. Play important role in clotting of blood
4. When blood vessel is damaged, the thrombocytes are activated and become sticky causing thrombocytes to clump together and form a clot that stops the bleeding.
1. Blood types are classified according to presence, or absence, of certain antigens.
2. Four major blood types are: A, B, AB, O.
3. A, B, & AB groups are based on presence of the A and/or B antigens on the red blood cells.
4. In type O blood, both antigens are absent.
1. Refers to the presence, or absence, of the Rh antigen on red blood cells.
2. Because this antigen was first found in Rhesus monkeys, this factor was named for them.
3. The Rh factor is an important factor in cross-matching blood for transfusions.
4. The Rh factor can cause difficulties when an Rh+ infant is born to an Rh- mother.
5. About 85% of Americans are Rh positive (Rh+) meaning that these HAVE the Rh antigen.
6. The remaining 15% are Rh negative (Rh-), meaning these individuals do NOT have the Rh antigen.
1. Gases that are normally dissolved in the liquid portion of blood
- 2. Major blood gases are:
- .....a. Oxygen (O2)
- .....b. Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
- .....c. Nitrogen (N2)
Physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating abnormalities, diseases, and disorders of the heart.
Physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating abnormalities, diseases, and disorders of the blood and blood-forming tissues.
Physician who specializes in the diagnosis, medical management, and surgical treatment of disorders of the blood vessels.