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Culture is a way of life determined by a set of beliefs, values & behaviours which people have in common.
What is Risk?
Extenal danger, someone or something that suggests a hazard
What is Vulnerability?
To be defenceless in front of potential risks.
What are the vulnerable populations as defined by Lepra?
- 1. Youth
- 2. Intellectually disabled
- 3. Physically disabled
- 4. ATSI
These 5 groups are vulnerable by Lepra as they have trouble communicating (as opposed to the elderly who are a vulnerable population but do not have problems with communication.)
Identifying your biases:
A bias is simply a preference or choice we have made that we allow to dominate in a given consideration.
In order to operate effectively as a police officer, this self awareness is critical. It can help to be self aware when we examine triggers or 'red flags', which are words, gestures or scenes that elicit negative emotional response. They are called red flags because bull fighters use a red flag to provoke animosity from bulls.
A social class of people are often regarded as a result of similarities they share - e.g. educational qualifications, occupation & lifestyle (dictated by disposable income). Those who are classified as part of the same social class have similar life chances or social opportunities, which are the probability that an individual in a given social position will attain or fail to attain particular goals or experiences, such certain levels of income, education or certain occupations.
Social inequality is a term that simply means that depending upon circumstance, an individual or group of people will not have the same level of access to a range of opportunities or services in society as compared to others.
Concepts underpinning crime:
Being poor and/or disadvantaged does not make you a criminal. Economic stress contributes to poor parenting and thus children come under the influence of delinquent peers and then progress on to anti-social and in some cases criminal behaviour.
Juveniles & public space
As juveniles grow to a new level of independence they try & seek that independence outside the home - on the streets and in public. Once again, juveniles with more social opportunity will likely spend their time involved in organised sports or other social activities and will be less liely to come under adverse notice.
According to White, the interaction between police and young people is the result of which three broad influences?
1. Social Background
2. Constriction of social space
3. Pressures on police to be seen to be doing their duty
Describe Police Culture
* police organisations tend to evolve slower than newer & more dynamic organisations
* Police have developed stable and recurring traits which engender a strong culture, officers tend to conform to these traits
* Sense of mission - not just a job but a way of life
Peels Principles - 1822
1. the basic mission for police is to prevent crime & disorder as an alternative to the repression of crime and disorder by military force and severity of legal punishment
2. Police to perform their duties dependent upon public approval of police existence, actions, behaviour and the ability of police to secure and maintain public respect
3. The police must secure the willing cooperation of the public in voluntary observance of the law to be able to secure & maintain public respect
4. the degree of cooperation of the public that can be secured diminishes, proportionately, the necessity for the use of physical force and compulsion in achieving police objectives
5. Provide an impartial service
6. police use physical force to the extent necessary to secure observance of the la or to restore order
7. the police are the public and the public are police
8. should never appear to usurp their powers
9. Never judge guilt or punish the guilty
10. The test of police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder, not the visible evidence of police action in dealing with them
Positive aspects of police culture
- * Professionalism
- * sense of duty and purpose
- * connecting with the community
- * Camaraderie/internal cohesion
- * sense of mission
- * Pride in your career
Negative aspects of police culture
- * cynicism
- * isolation from society
- * Suspicion of outsiders
- * Arrogance
- * Corruption
- * Code of silence/misplaced loyalty
- * siege mentality - them & us
- * Covering up stress & anxiety
- * alcohol &/or drug dependence
Changing police culture
police culture has changed significantly over the last 15years due to the wood royal commission with the aim of creating best practice policing
List some of the ways police culture has been changed:
- 1. Recruitment - opened up to all ages, gender, sexuality, education & experience
- 2. Professional education - Raise the standard of education & training in policing
- 3. Community policing - greater emphasis on community & police interaction
- 4. Special education on cultural change - understanding of cultural diversity
List some of the ways that make the NSW Police Force a bureaucracy:
1. It is an organisation
2. It is a large, public organisation
3. It has a specific goal
4. it has a system of rules & procedures (ie sops)
5. Division of labour - positions filled by experts
6. Chain of command
7. Technical competence
8. segregation of ownership - professional managers
9. Documentation - records (COPS, Notebooks etc)
10. Rights & properties of the position: assoc with the police not the person
Discretion: Explain what it is and where it comes from.
Discretion is the right to exercise personal judgement.
Common law provides you with a discretion whether to prosecute an alleged offender.
** your decision mau be questioned later - record reasons in notebook/COPS system. This is Accountability.
List the causes of crime.
- 1. Family factors - poor parenting
- 2. School performance & intelligence
- 3. Truancy
- 4. Delinquent peers
- 5. Poverty & unemployment
- 6. Substance abuse
Proximate causes of crime
Proximate causes are those that immediately precede criminal behaviour i.e. alcohol and/or substance abuse, peer pressure.
Distal causes of crime
Distal causes are more remote/or situated away from the point of crime ie poverty, family dissolution, poor parenting, unemployment substance abuse (over a long period)
The future nature of crime
other crimes are emerging that we have not experienced before, such as:
- gang related crime
- resource crime
- people smuggling
- sex trade
- weapons trade
- body parts trade
Accepted ethnic based descriptors:
- * Aboriginal appearance
- * Indian/Pakistani appearance
- * Asian appearance
- * white/european appearance
- * Black African appearance
- * Pacific Islander appearance
- * Mediterranean/Middle eastern
- * South American appearance
What are the 5 groups at risk of coming under police notice? On the streets and in public places.
- 1. Juveniles
- 2. Intoxicated/drug affected persons
- 3. Indigenous People
- 4. Mentally ill people
- 5. Demonstrators
List ways police can communicate with young people.
1. Communicate directly with the young people
2. connection with the young people
3. attitude of conciliation
4. Due respect of the rights of the young people
5. cooperate with other agencies
6. specialised training i.e. Youth Liaison Officers
7. Problem solving approach