Disinfectants 2

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Author:
kris10leejmu
ID:
137235
Filename:
Disinfectants 2
Updated:
2012-02-23 16:21:03
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Pharmacology
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Pharmacology
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  1. Are phenols commonly used for disinfection in veterinary hospitals?
    no
  2. Is alcohol effective against "easy" microorganisms - bacteria and enveloped viruses?
    yes - with long contact with bacteria
  3. Is alcohol effective against "hard" microorganisms - unenveloped viruses and spores?
    no
  4. How is alcohol commonly used in the veterinary hospital?
    • surgical scrub
    • wiping skin before injections
    • wiping vial tops before withdrawing drug
  5. What adverse effects can alcohol have on a patient when applied to intact skin?
    can dry skin out, can hill patient - can cause hypothermia in a small patient
  6. What adverse effects can alcohol have on a patient when applied to broken skin or open wounds?
    painful. can coagulate the protein on the surface of the wound, forming a layer that can protect underlying bacteria
  7. What do we call the layer of coagulated protein formed when alcohol is applied to an open wound?
    coagulum
  8. What is the more specific name of the type of alcohol that we normally use in disinfection purposes in the veterinary hospital?
    isopropyl alcohol
  9. Name 3 QUATS - quaternary ammonium compounds
    • Roccal - D
    • Zephiran
    • Parvosol
  10. Are QUATS normally applied to objects or directly to the surface of patient?
    objects
  11. Are QUATS particularly irritating to skin?
    no
  12. What 2 types of disinfecting compounds are halogens?
    • chlorines
    • iodines
  13. When we refer to chlorine type disinfecting compounds, what specific compound are we usually referring to?
    Na hypochlorite - NaOCL - Clorox or generic brand bleach
  14. Should chlorine bleach be used full strength as a disinfectant?
    no
  15. Is a Clorox solution normally applied to objects or directly to the surface of the patient?
    objects
  16. What types of microogranisms is chlorine bleach solution effective against?
    gets bacteria, fungi, both enveloped and unenveloped viruses
  17. What types of microorganisms is chlorine bleach solution not effective against?
    spores
  18. Is chlorine bleach solutions commonly used to disinfect against parvovirus?
    yes
  19. List 3 disadvantages of chlorine bleach solutions
    • bleaches fabrics
    • corrosive except to stainless steel
    • vapor is irritating
  20. Is there anything in particular that we should not mix Clorox with? Why?
    yes - do not mix Clorox with ammonia - produces toxic fumes
  21. What is the difference between an iodine and an iodophor?
    an iodophor is an iodine with a carrier molecule added to it, has prolonged antiseptic activity
  22. What is the name of the carrier molecule commonly added to iodine to make an iodophor? What is the name of this particular iodophor?
    • carrier molecule is polyvinyl plyrrolidone
    • the combination is called poyidone - iodine
  23. Should an iodophor used for surgical preparation of a patient contain a detergent or not? What is this called?
    • should - cleansing action
    • called a scrub
  24. In an aqueous solution of iodine, what is the iodine dissolved in?
    water
  25. In a tincture of iodine, what is the iodine dissolved in?
    alcohol
  26. What microorganisms are iodines and iodophors effective against?
    • bacteria
    • viruses
    • spores
    • fungi
  27. List 2 examples of iodine disinfectants
    • Lugol's iodine (aqueous)
    • tincture of iodine
  28. List 2 examples of iodophors (trade or prorietary names)
    • Betadine
    • Povidol
    • Wescodyne
    • Prepodyne
    • etc
  29. Chlorhexidine is in what chemical class?
    biguanide
  30. List 2 trade or proprietary names of chlorhexidine.
    • Nolvasan
    • Virosan
  31. Can chlorhexidine be used to disinfect objects?
    yes
  32. Can chlorhexidine be used as an antiseptic on living tissue?
    yes
  33. Chlorhexidine is effective against waht microorganisms?
    • bacteria
    • fungi
    • enveloped viruses (and unenveloped viruses?"
  34. Chlorhexidine is not effective against what microogranisms?
    spores
  35. What 2 peroxide compounds are classified as disinfectants?
    • hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)
    • Trifectant
  36. Why is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) kept tightly closed in a brown bottle?
    to prevent it from being broken down to water and oxygen by light and air
  37. Should H2O2 be used for cleaning significant wounds?
    no - may cause tissue damage
  38. What is our favorite use of H2O2 in the veterinary workplace?
    cleaning bloodstains out of white hair
  39. What entertaining thing does H2O2 do when it contacts organic material?
    it foams up
  40. Is glutaraldehyde used much for disinfection in veterinary medicine? Why or why not?
    no - expensive, short shelf life once mixed, complicated and time - consuming to use and bad smell
  41. Is glutaraldehyde used on objects or on living tissue?
    • objects
    • is toxic to living tissues
  42. What commercial disinfectant and tissue preservative is glutaraldehyde related to?
    formaldehyde
  43. What microorganisms is glutaraldehyde effective against?
    • all of them - bacteria
    • fungi
    • envelope and unenveloped viruses
    • spores
  44. What disinfectant has the widest spectrum of activity and is theoretically the best at killing microorganisms?
    glutaraldehyde

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