Bio Exam 1

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Bio Exam 1
2012-02-23 16:31:01

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  1. Nucleus Functions
    Houses chromosomes. made ofchromatin (DNA. the geneticmaterial, and proteins); contains nucleoli. where ribosomal subunits are made Pores regulate entry and exit ofmaterials.
  2. Nucleus Structure
    Surrounded by nuclear envelope(double membrane) perforated bynuclear pores. The nuclear envelope is continuous with the endoplasmшс retшсulum (ER).
  3. Ribosome
    Two subunits made of ribosoma lRNA and proteins: can be free in cytosol or bound to ER
  4. Ribosome Functions
    Protein synthesis
  5. Endoplasmic reticulum
    htensive network of membrane-bounded tubules and sacs; membrane separates lumen from cytosol: continuous with the nuclear envelope
  6. Rough ER Functions
    • - Aids in synthesis ofsecretory and other proteins from bound ribosomes;
    • - adds carbohydrates to glycoproteins:
    • - produces new membrane
  7. Smooth ER Functions
    • - synthesis oflipids, metabolism of carbohydrates.
    • - Cal2+ storage,
    • - detoxifica­tion of drugs and poisons
  8. Golgi apparatus
    Stacks of flattened membranous sacs; has polarity (cis and trans faces)
  9. Golgi apparatus
    • Modification of proteins,
    • carbo-hydrates on proteins. and phospholipids:
    • synthesis of many polysaccharides:
    • sorting of Golgi products, which are then released in vesicles
  10. lysosome
    Membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes (in animal cells)
  11. Lyzosome Functions
    • Breakdown of ingested substances,
    • cell macromolecules. and damaged organelles for recycling
  12. Vacuole
    large membrane-bounded vesicle In plants
  13. Vacuole Functions
    Digestion, storage. waste disposal.water balance, cell growth, and protection
  14. Mitochondrion
    Bounded by double membrane;inner membrane has infoldings(cristae)

    Functions: ATP producer
  15. Chloroplast
    Typically two membranes around fluid stroma, which contains membranous thylakoids stacked into grana (in plants)
  16. Peroxisome
    Specialiled metabolic compartment bounded by a single membrane
  17. Peroxisome Functions
    Contains enzymes that transferhydrogen to water, producing hydrogen peroxide (H202) as a by-product, which is converted to water by other enzymes in the peroxisome
  18. All Structures
    nucleus, rough ER, smooth ER, mitochondrion, centrosome,chloroplast, vacuole, lysosome, microtubule, cell wall, EeM,microfilament, Golgi apparatus, intermediate filament,plasma membrane, peroxisome, ribosome, nucleolus, nuclearpore, vesicle, flagellum, microvilli, plasmodesma