CTT: Pgs 142-158
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- So named because the major writers of the time are known as the "fathers" of the church. (patres in Latin)
- 2nd to 5th/6th century
A term used (especially in roman times) to describe those persons who are neither Christians nor Jews
In the Greek and Roman religious world, secret cults that conducted ritual initiation into the mysteries of a particular god or goddess. Their celebration usually involved purification rituals and sacred meals.
In the Roman world, a partly political and partly religious ceremony in honor of the emperor who was recognized as the superhuman or divine figure.
From the Greek tem meaning "witness," someone who, under persecution, dies rather than give up his or her faith.
The bodily remains of martyrs or other saints
In early Christianity, those who were arrested during persecution and stood firm in their faith but who were not put to death. Confessors enjoyed great prestige in the churches, and some claimed the right to forgive sins.
Falling away from the faith or renunciation of the faith under threat of persecution
Meaning "defender." The apologist of the early church attempted to respond to pagan criticism of Christianity by explaining what Christians believed and how they lived their lives in terms that made sense to outsiders.
Meaning, "ritual teaching" or "right opinion." the terms is often used to describe doctrine or teaching that is declared by the church (or any religious authority) to be correct and binding for believers; it is contrasted with heresy.
A theological term used to describe the relationship of the three persons of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit in one Godhead; as defines at the fourth century ecumenical councils of Nicaea and Constantinople, the dogma of the Trinity affirms that the three persons are coeternal and share equally in the same divine nature.
A short summary of belief; the earliest creeds originated as teaching instruments to prepare catechumens for Baptism; they later became formal instruments by which churches defined themselves.
Meaning "universal." the term Catholic is also used in a restrictive sense to refer to a tradition within Christianity, namely the Roman Catholic Church or to describe those churches that claim a continuity of leadership that goes back to the early Christian churches (for example, Eastern Orthodox Christians, Anglicans, and Episcopalians)
Meaning "overseer." In early Christianity, bishops were overseers of local churches, chiefly responsible for teaching and presiding at the Eucharist. Later, the bishop is an overseer of a group of churches known as a diocese
Government by bishops. The adjectival form of the word is episcopal
False teaching, or teaching that goes against orthodoxy (correct teaching) in the eyes of the church.
- From the Greek word gnosis, meaning knowledge
- Gnostics claimed to have access to a special kind of knowledge known to them alone and by which they could be saved. They believed that there were two Gods: one who was the supreme godhead of the divine realm (representing god) and who was unknown until Jesus came to reveal him; and the other the creator of the physical universe (representing evil), whom they equated with the God of the Old Testament. Gnostics believed that they belonged to the divine realm and their goal was to return there unharmed by this physical world.
Form a Greek word meaning "to seem" or "to appear to be." The belief of some early Christians that Jesus Christ did not really become flesh but only seemed to have a body. In reality he was a spiritual being who could not suffer or die.
Irenaeus of lyons
A late second-century bishop of the church at Lyons, he wrote Against Heresies, primarily in response to gnosticism
A doctrine about redemption taught by Irenaeus, a second century AD bishop. Irenaues said that the redemption effected by JC was a "doing over again" of all that ha gone wrong in human history.
Meaning "teaching," the term refers to the title of an early Christian document, The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles. It is a church order, that is, a document describing how the Christian ought to live and how the sacraments ought to be celebrated.
Origen of Alexandria
An early Christian theologian, he wrote a number of works including Against Celsus, a response to a non-Christian critique of Christianity, and On First Principles, an exposition of Christian doctrine as it was understood at that time
Term used to describe a method of interpreting scripture; it involves looking for a hidden spiritual meaning beneath the bare literal or historical meaning of the text
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