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What is PubMed?
Medical database covering medical field + OMD
What is VisionCite
Optometric database covering vision science, VT, practice mgmt, CL
Small focused Db w/ no abstracts or full-text
Developed by librarian at ICO
What is VisionNet?
o Optometric database covering vision science, VT, practice mgmt, CL
o Small focused Db w/ no abstracts or full-text
o Developed by librarian at SCO
o Must log-in to export to email
What is ReferenceSight?
o Freely available optometric database of journals/periodicals/clinical photos that may not be listed by any other Db
o Developed by waterloo university
What does it mean for a article to be peer-reviewed (refereed)?
- Publication process where a potential paper is reviewed/critiqued by anonymous experts
- prior to acceptance/publication by scholarly journal
- Provides confidence that material/results are valid
What are five helpful clues to know if an article is peer-reviewed or not?
§ Journal should say peer-reviewed
§ Instructions to authors may describe a review process
§ Scholarly w/ no ads
- § Articles are substantive studies w/ detailed methodologies & clearly presented
§ Contain enough references to evaluate the author’s work
What are the five different types of research you can do to fulfill your student research requirement?
- study à not limited to lab research; keep a narrow focus + start early
- review à keep narrow focus + critique the literature (What was/wasn’t addressed?)
- Case series
- à report about a group of unique patients
Prior research experience
- Capstone project
- create a procedure guide, instructional video, manual
What are the steps in the research process here at SCCO?
- 1. Develop and submit a proposal
- Introduction, hypothesis, methods(how to search literature, sample size, exclusion/inclusion criteria, randomization), references EndNote)
- and IRB(reviewed and evaluated based on quality/protection onto human subjects)
- 2. Proposal review by student research committee
3. Research conducted and final report submitted
4. Present at the student research symposium
most important aspect of research is ____________
Asking a good question!
What is the FINER test?
Name two key aspects of research
- keep a small focus (one relationship)
- the population rigorously + the end-point/outcome
What would the citation for a journal article look like?
Author last name, first name/initial. Article title. Journal title. Date of publication; volume(issue): page numbers.
note: if more than 6 authors use et. al, also use index medicus for the proper abbreviation for the journal
What is the citation format for a book?
Author last name, first name/initial. Book title. Edition. City of publication: publisher; date of publication; page numbers
Proper citation for CD-ROM?
- Author last name, first name/initial. Title of CD-ROM [CD-ROM]. City of publication: publisher; date of publication.
Proper ciation for a journal online?
- Author last name, first name/initial. Article title. Journal title [Internet]. Date of publication [date of citation]; volume(issue): page numbers. Available from: web address.
Proper citation for a webpage?
- Name of webpage [homepage on internet]. City of publication: publisher; date of publication [date of citation]. Available from: web address.
Proper citation for a student research paper?
- Student research:
- Author last name, first name/initial. Title of research paper [student research paper]. Fullerton (CA): SCCO; date of publication.
What is the independent variable and what is the dependent variable in a study?
- (predictor) variable that's held constant in a study (i.e. CL lubricant solution use w/ and w/o CMC
- (outcome) primary and secondary outcomes, response of interest, outcome when independent variable applied (i.e. corneal staining to various CL lubricants)
what is the null hypothesis?
No difference between product one and product two
What is a one tailed hypothesis?
- One-tailed (>,<): difference in outcome w/
- dependent variable is either greater than or
- less than outcome w/o dependent variable
What is a two tailed hypothesis test?
Two-tailed (≠): difference in outcome w/ dependent variable can be both greater than and less than outcome w/o dependent variable
More difficult to demonstrate significance
More robust statistically bc covers all possible outcomes
what are examples of bias in a study design such as prospective cohort, case-control study, randomized clinical trial?
- Randomized clinical trial: bias from loss to
- follow-up + clinic-based population
- Prospective cohort longitudinal study: bias from
- loss to follow-up
- Case-control study: bias from duration
- of diagnosis (must limit to newly dx cases) + bias in
- hospitalization/clinic-based population
What are two conditions that confounders meet?
- meet 2 conditions:
- Association w/ the disease of interest
- in the absence of exposure
- Association w/ the exposure but not as
- a result of being exposed